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Alevel Relationships revision.

Important things that I think you need to know!!
Bear in mind this is by no means an exhaustive list but just a general overview
of things we have covered.
Along with this the Evaluation points are a general overview of the topics, you
guys can be…

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Physiological differences in male/female gametes i.e. anisogamy = development of
different mating strategies to maximise reproductive success
Trivers (1983) ­ Period of gestation ­ Because females have long period of
gestation more choosy over their mates.
Berkow (1989) ­ Female strategy = Have a man, reliable, committed and good provider.…

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Reinforcement & Needs satisfaction theory

Based on fundamental principle of behaviourist approach ­ conditioning ­ so we are
attracted to what we like and repulsed by what we dislike.

Byrne, 1970 Find people attractive for 2 reasons:
1. Person was around when +ve event happened = an association with them…

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Rozin, Millman & Nemeroff (1986) ­ Conducted lab exp. Where participants were asked
to smell a laundered shirt worn by a disliked person and a liked person, unbeknown to
them, the same laundered shirt was used showed the laundered shirt worn by the disliked
person was less desirable than the…

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Individual in relationship strives for highest possible rewards at the lowest cost
(selfish view)
Rewards ­ companionship, being cared for,
Costs ­ emotions, financial costs

Maintenance of relationships
Social Equity Theory


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Messnick & Cook (1983) An exchange judged fair if the ratio of perceived inputs
(costs) to rewards is equal
assumes people strive to achieve fairness in relationships and feel distressed if they
perceive unfairness i.e. inequity

Walster (1978) ­ 4 principles to equity theory:
Changing perception of situation, the loser…

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- Helps explain why marital dissatisfaction does not strongly predict divorce
- Does NOT explain processes that make initially successful marriages
- Deterministic ­ assumes all relationships, based on those principles and nothing else.

General (for both theories)
- Overgeneralises ­ assumes that the behaviour universal for all cultures…

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2. Exposure ­ problems brought into open
3. Negotiation are discussed
4. Resolution ­ both partners attempt to resolve issues
5. Termination ­ occurs when resolution was unsuccessful
Couples that went fast from DT = reported feeling less intimate with their partner
Slow from DT = emotionally exhausting, intense and…

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Cause and affect - What about causality; are happier people more likely to get married?
Most important factors associated with the maintenance or dissolution of marriage can
be linked to the three variables identified.

Lots of research support - Good evidence exists for the influences outlined.
Interaction between variables -…

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Evolutionary theory suggests that there are two main mechanisms for the evolution of an
animal's characteristics:
· Natural selection (survival of the fittest). This is the process by which animals that are
best adapted to their environment (fitness) are more likely to survive.
· Sexual selection (survival of the sexiest-reproductive…


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