Relationships- revision

complete unit revision notes with evaluation (AO2) and studies. 

Relationships:

  • the formation of romantic relationships.
  • the maintenance of romantic relationships.
  • the breakdown of romantic relationships.
  • sexual selection.
  • parental investment (PI)
  • influence of childhood and adolescent experiences on adult relationships.
  • relationships in other cultures. 
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Psychology ­ Relationships


FORMATION OF RELATIONSHIPS

Factors involved in initial attraction:

Mere exposure effect: Bossard (1982) heightens whether we are attracted to someone
however being around someone too much can lead to us disliking them.
Evolutionary reasons: we are attracted to people that will help us pass on our genes…

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Refuting Evidence: critics argued that this theory cannot explain all types of relationships
and it only considers one factor to the formation which is reinforcement. Hay (1985) claimed
the theory cannot explain how all types of relationships form. For example family
relationships and work relationships do not consider the pleasure…

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the higher the rating. With the same sex the rating stayed the same. Nothing to do with
alcohol according to Glaude as he stated that you will lower your ratings as time goes on to
try and find a partner.



MAINTENANCE THEORIES

Equity theory:

Walster (1978): Fairness not equality. Unfairness…

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Evaluation:

Research methods: experiments were carried out in a lab (artificial) environment. Other
psychologists criticise the theory on its ecological validity. The research gives us a
"snap-shot" into relationships and cant tell us how relationships are maintained in real-life
because it is only showing us their relationship in that one…

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4. Social processes: going public to friends & family in order to seek support.
5. Grave-dressing process: construct a representation that doesn't put them in an
unfavourable light as they tidy up memories and history.
6. Resurrection process: prepare for a new relationship by redefining themselves, building on
past experience…

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were two main categories that triggered relationship breakdown: internal and external
factors.



Human reproductive behaviour and sexual selection

Inter & intrasexual selection:

Intrasexual selection: members of one sex (usually males) compete with other members of
the own sex for access to members of the opposite sex (mate competition). The trait…

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Supportive evidence: helps us understand mate preferences and it makes sense that a
women would be choosy as she would not want to be a single mother and have to look after
a child on her own and she invests more.
Reductionism: complex behaviour is reduced to simple terms. Nowadays…

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large number of people which leads to a high degree of choice. Non-western cultures lack
these urban settings, therefore there is less social and geographical mobility, interaction
with fewer people on a daily basis and therefore less choice.
Individual or group-based relationships: attitudes in individualists cultures are more highly
regarded…

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