Addiction Revision Table

Complete with AO1 and AO2/AO3

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  • Created on: 11-06-14 18:18
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Biological Initiation Maintenance Relapse
Model for
AO1 The biological theory believes that genes are According to the biological model, it is Physical dependence of the individual has
the key reason to why people get addictions. down to chemical addiction, by the role of
on nicotine, which can mean high
These genes make the addict vulnerable or nicotine. Nicotine is extremely addictivetolerance. Stopping long-term smoking
give them the need to be addicted to and produces significant changes in the can result in severe withdrawal symptoms
functioning of our brain. (eg: headaches, anxiety, insomnia),
something for different reasons. Biological
whereby these can be avoided if the
predisposition! However, Forshaw suggested
Nicotine Regulation Model ­ Smokers person relapses and resumes smoking, as
that smoking addiction is driven by a continue to smoke to maintain a high level nicotine levels in the blood therefore
combination of biological, social, cultural and of nicotine in the body, as to avoid increase again.
environmental pressures, such as the pub or a negative withdrawal symptoms. Lerman et al effects of withdrawal
method of stress management. Shachter asserts that the physical symptoms illustrated with smokers
dependence theory is relevant to abstaining from smoking for a night, had
Lerman people with particular gene (SLC smokers. Participants given low nicotine increased blood flow to parts of brain
gene) are less likely to take up smoking. Those content cigarettes smoked more than concerned with attention, memory and
who have the SLC gene are more likely to try those given high nicotine cigarettes, reward, thus allowing us to understand
and smoke because it affects the reward suggesting that higher content allowed why an individual may relapse when
pathways in the brain that rely on dopamine them to reach required level with few craving a cigarette.
and serotonin via nicotine.
Vink et al family and twin studies, and only Reward System ­ nicotine activates
nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, leading
found 44% addiction accounted for genes.
to release of dopamine = pleasure! So
May not predict initiation? Other factors.
when nicotine levels drop, mood drops
too. Sabol et al having the SLC gene
enhanced ability to stop smoking.

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AO2/AO3 Supporting Research ­ Thorgeirsson et al Supporting Research ­ Corigall and Coen Reductionist (and deterministic) ­ ignores
Icelandic study, that identified specific gene trained rats (generalisation issues!!!) to role of other possible factors which may
variant on chromosome 15 that influenced self-administer nicotine through implants affect relapse, including social context.
number of cigarettes smoked per day, directly into reward centres to provide Research has found support for
nicotine dependence and risk of developing positive feelings.…read more

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BUT not all individuals showing 100% concordance rate either, it
excitation of brain (so smoke to get it). find it effective = role of environment! cannot be assumed that smoking
Therefore a combination of approaches should addiction, and relapse back into smoking
be take: biological (predispositioning) and Alternative explanations - Perhaps the is solely biologically determined,
environmental approach (external factors such learning theory can explain smoking otherwise the percentages would be
as availability and peer pressure). maintenance more successfully, as higher.…read more

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Biological Initiation Maintenance Relapse
Model for
AO1 The biological theory believes that genes are Sensation seeking ­ high sensation When behaviour is stopped, the PG
the key reason to why people get addictions. seekers have lower perception of risk experiences increased heart rate, raised
These genes make the addict vulnerable or give and anticipate higher potential rewards.…read more

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Brain activity Rugle and Melamed ­ EEG be gambling, thus lacking ability to control may resort to gambling (in order to
patterns of PG's similar to those with ADHD behaviour. maintain a positive feeling).
children, so similar brain activity as children with Suggests that parts of brain responsible
difficulties controlling attention and behaviour = for dealing with control of decision
biology? making.…read more

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SLT (a accessibility to gambling opportunities,
psych explanation n) does consider. SLT Explaining Individual Differences incentives to gamble (eg: free bets and
suggests that gambling addiction occurs through genetic explanations can explain why peer pressure). MUST CONSIDER ALL! ­
vicarious reinforcement, whereby PG has some people become PG's and others Eclectic approach needed.
initiated behaviour observed by role models don't even though they have the same
(eg: parents) seeing them get rewarded for environmental and life pressures
their behaviour. This acknowledges individuals' (initiation ­ predispositioning).…read more

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Cognitive Model Initiation Maintenance Relapse
for BOTH (tailor)
AO1 Faulty thinking which leads to maladaptive Belief of helping the problem maintains the Expectancy Theory see that they will
behaviour which eventually leads to an addiction. be `lucky' next (gambling). And with
addiction. smoking see withdrawal symptoms as
Expectancy Theory as see more negative and relapsing behaviour
Self-Medication Model this suggests positives than negatives. Brandon ­ removes this.…read more

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do think about the future before they
engage in SMOKING.
Gamblers are an exception.... As theory
would predict that those who lose
wouldn't continue gambling as
disadvantages would outweigh the
advantages). Griffiths offered an
explanation, suggesting that gamblers
experience cognitive bias, which distorts
the reasoning of addictive gamblers, thus
viewing things irrationally.
AO2/AO3 (not Individual Differences explains Reductionist Ignores biological factors Free-will cognitive model is good
specific to addiction WELL in terms of individual (nature).…read more

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Has FACE VALIDITY. them with accurate information about the
negative side-effects of smoking, thus
Alternative Explanations addictions allowing them to see more disadvantages
cannot be explained solely by cognitive than advantages. Therefore, the cognitive
factors; cognitive model doesn't explain model may explain initiation and
chemical addictions such as smoking. maintenance accurately, providing
Plentiful research found evidence for psychologists and government officials to
addictive properties of nicotine, with a act in the appropriate way, targeting the
biological theory ­ dopamine reward dangers of smoking.…read more

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Learning Model for Initiation Maintenance R
both (tailor) e
AO1 Operant Conditioning negative Classical Conditioning Association Classical Conditioning
reinforcement as associate behaviour as formed between addictive behaviour paraphernalias trigger memories of
removal of unpleasant feelings. This is (primary reinforce) and the paraphernalia addiction due to associations, which
known as SELF-MEDICATION. of the addiction (secondary reinforce) and cause relapse:
Positively reinforces behaviour due to the the state of arousal.…read more


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