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Biological Initiation Maintenance Relapse
Model for
Smoking
AO1 The biological theory believes that genes are According to the biological model, it is Physical dependence of the individual has
the key reason to why people get addictions. down to chemical addiction, by the role of
on nicotine, which can mean…

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AO2/AO3 Supporting Research ­ Thorgeirsson et al Supporting Research ­ Corigall and Coen Reductionist (and deterministic) ­ ignores
Icelandic study, that identified specific gene trained rats (generalisation issues!!!) to role of other possible factors which may
variant on chromosome 15 that influenced self-administer nicotine through implants affect relapse, including social…

Page 3

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cigarettes, incentives to smoke (eg: free administered in smaller doses without 54% of the risk possibly being attributed
cigarettes and peer pressure), and the damaging chemicals in tobacco (eg: tar), to inheritance, and twin studies not
provision of alcohol, as alcohol reduces should be effective, BUT not all individuals showing…

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Biological Initiation Maintenance Relapse
Model for
Gambling
AO1 The biological theory believes that genes are Sensation seeking ­ high sensation When behaviour is stopped, the PG
the key reason to why people get addictions. seekers have lower perception of risk experiences increased heart rate, raised
These genes make the addict…

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Brain activity Rugle and Melamed ­ EEG be gambling, thus lacking ability to control may resort to gambling (in order to
patterns of PG's similar to those with ADHD behaviour. maintain a positive feeling).
children, so similar brain activity as children with Suggests that parts of brain responsible
difficulties controlling…

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addiction down to just biological processes, it environmental factors, such as
ignores the role of role models, which the SLT (a accessibility to gambling opportunities,
psych explanation n) does consider. SLT Explaining Individual Differences incentives to gamble (eg: free bets and
suggests that gambling addiction occurs through genetic explanations can…

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Cognitive Model Initiation Maintenance Relapse
for BOTH (tailor)
AO1 Faulty thinking which leads to maladaptive Belief of helping the problem maintains the Expectancy Theory see that they will
behaviour which eventually leads to an addiction. be `lucky' next (gambling). And with
addiction. smoking see withdrawal symptoms as
Expectancy Theory as…

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maximise the preferences they hold. They
do think about the future before they
engage in SMOKING.
Gamblers are an exception.... As theory
would predict that those who lose
wouldn't continue gambling as
disadvantages would outweigh the
advantages). Griffiths offered an
explanation, suggesting that gamblers
experience cognitive bias, which distorts
the…

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signals (eg: neurotransmitters associated potentially stop smoking initiation, and in
with addiction). turn maintenance/addiction, by providing
Has FACE VALIDITY. them with accurate information about the
negative side-effects of smoking, thus
Alternative Explanations addictions allowing them to see more disadvantages
cannot be explained solely by cognitive than advantages. Therefore, the cognitive…

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Learning Model for Initiation Maintenance R
both (tailor) e
l
a
p
s
e
AO1 Operant Conditioning negative Classical Conditioning Association Classical Conditioning
reinforcement as associate behaviour as formed between addictive behaviour paraphernalias trigger memories of
removal of unpleasant feelings. This is (primary reinforce) and the paraphernalia addiction due to…

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