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Psychology revision pack

PYA4 ­ Pro and Anti-social behaviour

Theories of aggression

Social learning theory:

Aggressive behaviour is learnt by observing others and imitating their behaviour
Role models can include parents, peers and celebrities portrayed in the media
Direct reinforcement ­ reward and punishment
Indirect reinforcement ­ observing and imitating,…

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Supporting scientific evidence
Deterministic ­ aggression is determined by the others around us. Many people surrounded
by aggressive role models and are not aggressive
Reductionist ­ ignores other factors. Floody found high testosterone levels can lead to
Practical implications ­ Bandura triggered a debate about media violence, can help…

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Gergan and Gergan
People were monitored as to how they would react with strangers
One condition were in a room with strangers
The other were in a room in darkness with strangers
People moved about much more, conversation was patchy
Several people reported emotional and intimate contact
This suggests that…

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Study of stress levels in children before and after relocation of the
airport in Munich, Germany.
They found a link between high levels of aircraft noise and stress levels.
This suggests that noise can lead to frustration and aggression.

1. Sample bias ­ the study only used children. Other age…

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The theory as a whole ignores cultural differences, some countries have temperate of 92-95
degrees but do not have aggression.

The theory is also deterministic because it suggests that heat will lead to a negative mood and
aggression. This is not always the case.

Over crowing

Increased arousal levels when…

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SHOULD I help?

We must say yes to all of these questions if we are going to help someone.

Clark and word ­ is help needed?

Study of a workman falling off a ladder
If workman fell of a ladder in full view (clear) ­ 100% helped
If fell behind…

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4. Weighing up the costs vs. rewards of helping and not helping. Costs ­ time,
safety, negative judgement. Rewards ­ praise, satisfaction, relief of guilt.
5. Helping behaviour

Piliavin ­ victim characteristics

If helper is at risk because the victim could cause harm they
are less likely to help.

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Watching films activates memory schemas associated with the content of the film
It them makes the content of the film more likely to be performed
Watching violent behaviour makes then observer more likely to be aggressive (anti-social

Bandura's BoBo doll study:

Lab study
Children observed adults behaving either aggressively…

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3. Correlation ­ shows links but not causes, makes it un-useful.

A strength of all of the research is that it highlights problems to society. This can help improve society
and improve peoples lives. We can cut down on anti-social behaviour if we address some of the

Violent behaviour…

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Could criticise wrong behaviours
This suggests that media can provide understanding of moral issues and help children with
social development

1. Natural study ­ high ecological validity/low control over variables
2. Sample bias

Difficult to identify long term effects as most research has focused on the short term effects.



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