AQA A2 Psychology- Addictive Behaviour Revision Notes

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: jesspre
  • Created on: 30-03-16 14:08
Preview of AQA A2 Psychology- Addictive Behaviour Revision Notes

First 176 words of the document:

The Psychology of Addictive Behaviour
Addiction refers to a range of behaviours associated with a dependence on
Tobacco dependence is the most common addiction, although it is a decreasing one
in most developing countries.
12% of adults or 30% of 18 24 year olds take illegal drugs.
The diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSMIVR) is used to diagnose addictions.
There are three main stages of addiction
Initiation why the addiction starts?
Maintenancewhy does it continue despite the consequences?
Relapse why have people who have stopped, started again?
The term tolerance is when a person needs to engage more and more in the activity
to maintain the positive feeling.
Withdrawal is where a person stops engaging in their addictive behaviour and
experiences a range of unpleasant physical symptoms such as shaking, sweating,
aches and pains, etc.
Detoxification can take place with or without specialist organisations and facilities. It
is achieved when the drug is completely removed from the persons system.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

The biological model emphasises the influence of biochemical and genetic factors on
addictive behaviours.
The Biological Model suggests people are addicted due to the physical dependence:
the chemicals and biological reactions.
Initiation of a Smoking Addiction
The Biological Model states that initiation is due to the role of genetics.
Family and Twin Studies estimate the heritability of tobacco smoking to be between
39% and 80%.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

However, there are also limitations as the
approach ignores all other potential influences such as irrational thought processes,
social context, etc.
There is supporting evidence for the effect of individual differences (genetic
influences). Thorgeisson et al (2008) identified a specific gene variant, a
chromosome 15 that influenced the number of cigarettes smoked per day, the level
of nicotine dependence and the risk of developing related diseases. Smokers who
smoked less than 10 a day were less likely to have this variant of the gene.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Relapse of a Gambling Addiction
Intense stimulation and excitement for a pathological gambler. Blaszczynski et al
(1990) found that poor tolerance for boredom may contribute to repetitive gambling
behaviour. Pathological gamblers had significantly higher boredom proneness
scores than a control group of nongamblers. There were no significant differences
between the different types of gambling.
Genetic explanations can explain why some people develop pathological gambling
yet others who have the same environmental experiences and life pressures do not.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Initiation of a Gambling Addiction
Initially, the person may see others winning at gambling. Their expectations may
then drive them to place their first bet, e.g. starting with the lottery or a small bet.
Once started, the excitement is associated with the whole gambling process,
reinforcing the positive feeling it produces. This may be furthered with their
occasional win, especially in the start, which then leads them to become addicted.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Blaszczynski and Nower .) Emotionally vulnerable gamblers have
accompanying anxiety and/ or depression and have a history of poor coping skills.
Their accompanying psychological dysfunction makes them resistant to change and
means they'll require treatment for their other vulnerabilities as well as their gambling
Social Learning Theory (or observed learning) was proposed by Bandura . (1977)
Initiation of a Smoking Addiction
SLT theory suggests that people will imitate behaviours of others.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Pavlov first discovered this.
Conditioned cues associated previously with receiving nicotine increase the
likelihood that the smoker will respond by smoking.
Hogarth et al (2010) found that the amount of craving increased. Significant when a
conditioned stimulus related to smoking was presented.
A concept related to the social learning explanation of smoking is selfefficacy, a
person's belief in their ability to succeed in a situation.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

The cognitive model suggests you become addicted to a behaviour or substance
because of the way we think. I.e. people choose their behaviour as they have free
will, based on their own beliefs, opinions, values, expectations, etc.
These are often but not always, irrational thoughts.
E.g. my Uncle smoked 50 a day and he lived, smoking can't be that bad.
I'm going to die anyway, so I may as well smoke.
The fruit machine doesn't like me.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

Can be explanation due to Becks Vicious Circle . E.g. a person may be unhappy and
to combat this they start smoking meaning that the addiction initiates. This could
then lead to medical problems due to the poor health associated with smoking. It
could also lead to financial problems as for example a pack of 20 cigarettes cost
approx. £7. A two pack a day person will spend almost £100 a week and £400 a
month.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Gelkopf et al (2002) propose that individuals intentionally use different forms of
pathological behaviour to treat the psychological symptoms they suffer with. The
activity chosen is perceived as helping with a particular problem. E.g. some activities
help anxiety and Gambling helps with the depression associated with poverty.
Maintenance of a Gambling Addiction
The role of irrational beliefs:
Cognitive distortions and irrational beliefs influence the maintenance of a gambling
addiction.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »