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Formation of relationships AO1
Matching hypothesis - Walster et al (1966) randomly paired over
700 1st year Minnesota students into "blind-date" couples for a
university dance. The matching hypothesis predicts that people
aspire to be in a romantic relationship with a partner who has a
high level of social desirability. Each of the 752 students in
Walster's study completed questionnaires measuring their various
qualities. Physical attractiveness assessed on entry to dance.
Prediction of researchers was p's would like randomly allocated
partners more if well-matched.…read more

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Formation of relationships AO2
*Matching hypothesis- Only the 1st stage of relationships was
studied, other factors may become important at a later stage of
a relationship.
*Physical attractiveness is a very obvious quality, it can be seen
immediately. Other qualities, such as intelligence, sense of
humour and social skills may take longer to uncover.
*Reinforcement-affect theory
*Reductionism and Determinism- for reinforcement-affect
theory, relationships are reduced to the repetition of
pleasurable behaviour and the avoidance of painful behaviour.
Downplays cognition in relationship formation.…read more

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Maintenance of relationships
SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY. - Homans (1961) claims that all human
relationships are seen as business transactions ­ the `merchants' are
motivated by `self interest' in order to strive to get the best `deal'. Aim
to get maximum rewards at minimum costs. Thibaut and Kelley (59) ­
long term relationships go through 4 stages. Sampling ­ costs and
rewards of associating with others are explored. Bargaining ­ a process
of negotiation in which rewards and costs are agreed.…read more

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Maintenance of relationships AO2
The theories makes us understand how we view a relationship in a
very economic manner (cost, profit etc) ­ AO2 synoptic ­ reductionist?
It reinforces the fact we are motivated by `self-interest' but states we
calculate what the costs/rewards would potentially be­ AO2 ­
Hedonism ­ not all concerned with what we can get
Both theories `overgeneralise' ­ do not see behaviour due to individual
differences, instead as universal.…read more

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Breakdown of relationships AO1
Duck (1982) Risk factors ­ Predisposing personal factors: distasteful
personal habits, change in interests, poor role models (e.g. parents
divorced), poor social skills. Precipating factors: deception, boredom,
relocation, conflict.
Duck (1984) Phase model of breakdown ­ Intrapsychic, Dyadic, Social
and grave-dressing
Duck (2001) Reasons for breakdown - Pre-existing doom, Mechanical
failure, Sudden death
Lee (1985) based on 112 pre-marital break-ups. 5 stage model of
breakdown (DENRAT ­ Dissatisfaction, Exposure, Negotiation, Resolution
Attempts and Termination.).…read more

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Breakdown of relationships AO2
Lee mainly looks at events leading up to dissolution, and Duck looks at
processes afterwards. Neither model explains why relationships break
down. Research in non-Western cultures found differences between those
and Western cultures. Moghaddam et al. (1993) found that North American
relationships are mainly individualistic (concerned with the needs of the
self), voluntary and temporary (the majority of relationships are able to be
terminated). Most non-Western relationships are collective (concerned with
the needs of other, e.g. kin), obligatory and permanent.
.…read more

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Sexual selection AO1
In evolutionary terms natural selection is the process by which certain
characteristics and behaviours get passed on in the gene pool because they give
the individual a better chance of surviving and reproducing.
Sexual selection is the process within natural selection where by any
characteristic or behaviour that increases the reproductive success of an
individual are selected and these characteristics may get exaggerated over
evolutionary time.…read more

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Sexual selection AO2
* Cross cultural studies provide good evidence for evolutionary theory
because if we see the same behaviour across culture we can deduce that
this behaviour may be a result of genes (evolution) rather than socialisation
(Buss) Although the study lends support to evolutionary theory we must be
careful in assuming that human mate choice is just a product of our
evolutionary past.…read more

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Parental Investment/parent-offspring conflict AO1
Trivers (72)defined parental investment (PI) as, "any investment by the
parent in an individual offspring that increases the offspring's chance of
surviving at the cost of the parent's ability to invest in other offspring."
PI includes the provision of resources (such as food, energy and time used
in obtaining food and maintaining the home and territory), time spent
teaching offspring, and risks taken to protect young. Trivers argued that
there's an optimum number of offspring.…read more


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