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Philosophy 1: Topic 1 ­ Beliefs about deity


Myth: a story, not factually true, but contains an important message, or truth.
Symbol: a way of explaining the unexplainable.
Analogy: using everyday words to suggest a deeper meaning.

Why do we use this type of language?
- Aids understanding
- We…

Page 2

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What does it say in the Bible?
- `Image of God'
- Psalm 139 `Lord, you have examined me and you know me. You know
everything I do...'
- John 1:29 `Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world'
- Genesis 1:23 `the Everlasting God'
- Job…

Page 3

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Arguments for God's Existence


The Telelogical Argument
- Thomas Aquinas
- William Paley
- Isaac Newton


What is it?
- The idea the universe is fine-tuned and complex, so it's unlikely to have happened by
chance.
- It must have been designed, by some intelligent, supernatural being: God.

Aquinas: invented…

Page 4

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The Cosmological Argument
- Thomas Aquinas



What is it?
- Nothing is self-caused and this chain cannot go back forever (infinite regress)
- There must be a first-cause: something un-caused or self-caused = God.
God doesn't need something to happen to make Him act.


Key Words:
- Contingent Being: something…

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- St Anselm



What is it?
- God is the greatest thing that can be imagined, and something which exists is better than
something which doesn't.
- For God to be the greatest thing: He must EXIST.



Support Against
- Logical to an extent - Proves human knowledge is limited,…

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- St Paul
- Rudolf Otto


What is it?
- The argument that God can be, and has been experiences, and therefore must exist.

How can God be experienced?
- Miracles/having prayers answered.
- Meditation
- Being relieved of suffering
- Conversion (like St Paul)



Rudolf Otto: used the word…

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The Argument from Morality
- Cardinal JH Newman
- St Augustine

What is conscience?
- a moral sense of right and wrong felt by a person and affecting their behaviour.
- an inner feeling as to the goodness.

What is it?
- Moral laws exist; felt by everyone, they must…

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- Why did he make us imperfect and incomplete?
- Evil exists; he cannot be omnibenevolent/potent.

Agnostic: a person who believes it is impossible to know whether or not God exists.
Atheist: a person who doesn't believe in God

- Some say faith is blind, and irrational: God was once…

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- Walking on water
- Incarnation
- Resurrection

Types of Miracles in the New Testament:
- Power over nature, evil, sickness, death.



Mark 4 ­ Jesus Calms the Storm
- Jesus and the disciples were on a boat, there were strong winds and waves, water went into the boat.
Jesus…

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