Ethics 2 Topic 1 - OCR Christianity RE

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  • Created on: 01-07-14 17:23
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Ethics 2 ­ Topic 1: Religion, Peace and Justice
War and Peace
Conventional War: A period of hostile relations between countries, leading to
armed conflict.
Civil War: Forces in conflict belong to the same nation.
Holy War: A war fought for religious issues, by people who believe this is what God
wants.
Nuclear War: A war by which nuclear weapons are the main threat.
Crusades: Military expeditions, from 11th to 13th centuries, fought by Christians with
the intent of regaining Jerusalem and the Holy Land.
Causes of War Effects of War
Land Poverty
Resources Death
Political Freedom
Conflict Change in political
Power systems
The Just War Theory ­ A set of criteria which determines whether or not it is justifiable
to go to war ("Just war")
Developed by: Cicero 106 BC
Thomas Aquinas 1224 AD
Jus ad bellum ­ Whether it is right to go to war
Must be a JUST CAUSE
Only a LEGITIMATE AUTHORITY can start
Reasonable chance of SUCCESS
Benefits OUTWEIGH harm
Jus in bello ­ Rules defining the correct conduct during war
Protect CIVILIANS
Force PROPORTIONAL to wrong doings & MINIMUM force used
Jus post bellum ­ How peace should be established after war
JUST CAUSE to end
No REVENGE

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Any punishments limited to those DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE
Ethics 2 ­ Topic 1: Religion, Peace and Justice
War and Peace
Pacifism: Belief that you should always work for peace
Absolute Pacifist: NEVER right to take part in war (even self-defence).
Conditional Pacifist: Accept there are circumstances whereby war is better than
alternatives.
Selective Pacifist: Matter of degree; oppose wars involving mass destruction.…read more

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Ethics 2 ­ Topic 1: Religion, Peace and Justice
Crime and Punishment
Aims of Punishment ­
Reformation: Giving the criminal a chance to reform and live a better life.
Vindication: Set an example ­ show the law must be obeyed.…read more

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Ethics 2 ­ Topic 1: Religion, Peace and Justice
Social Injustice
Restorative Justice: Approach to justice focusing on needs of victims & offenders.
Usually involves victims & criminals meeting to discuss the crime.
> Archbishop Desmond Tutu: "a search to rehabilitate both the victim and the perpetrator", helped to
stop apartheid in South Africa.
Social Injustice: Unfair treatment of people in society: sexism, racism, and ageism.…read more

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