sugars such as glucose and fructose (monosaccharides) and lactose and sucrose (disaccharides) are easier to digest that starches (polusaccharides).
starch is a complex sugar, which needs to be broken down into sugar by digestion before it can be used for energy. that's why it's good to eat starchy foods such as pasta and rice a few hours before playing sports.
non-starch polysaccharides (NSP's) such as fibre are found in bran, fruit, beans and brown bread.
granulated sugar is used for general things like it tea and coffee.
caster sugar is finer tham granulated and is used for baking, such as cakes and biscuits.
brown sugars such as demerara and muscavado have strong flavours and are used for fruit cake, gingerbread and christmas pudding.
icing sugar is fine, white and powdery, and used for icings and confectionary.
sugar is used to preserve jam, gives texture and volume and helps the jam set.
creamed mixtures, for example when baking cakes, sugar is beaten together with fat to incorporate air, which lightens the cakes.
sugar speeds up fermentation in bread.
sugar adds sweetness, colour, texture and volume to cakes, biscuits and pasteries, and prevents them drying out.
protein is needed for growth and repair. it is broken down into amino acids to be used by the body. essential amino acids cannot be made by the body; they have to be eaten. there are 8 in adults and 10 in children.
high biological value (HBV) contains all ten and is found in meat, soya, milk, eggs, and fish.
low biological value (LBV) proteins don't contain all ten, such as cereals, pulses and nuts.
the main types of meat eaten in the UK are beef, pork and lamb. meat is the muscle tissue from animals. products made using these include burgers, sausages, pies, spag bol etc.
the three main types of poultry in the UK are chicken, turkey and duck. poultry is becoming more popular than meat. the main cuts are drumstick, breast and wings. poultry is particularyl suscrptable to salmonella food poisonig, especially chicken.
oily fish include herring, mackrel, salmon and tuna
white fish include cod, haddock, plaice and skate.
shellfish include crab, lobster and mussels.
fish is very nutritious, containing lots of vitamins and omega 3 oils. manufactured products containing fish include fish fingers, fishcakes and scampi.
vegetarians need alternatives to meat products. these include soya beans, which can be made into TVP and tofu, quorn made from fungus and egg white, and tempah made from fermented soya beans. they dont taste of much, so are normally flavoured by marinating them before cooking.
vitamins and minerals
vitamin A is needed for good eyesight and growth and functions of tissues. we get most of it as retinol found in liver, butter, fish oils and eggs, but is also found in carotene found in orange/yellow fruit and veg, and margarine.
vitamin B is found in cereals, liver, kidneys, yeast, peas, pulses, dairy, meat and fish.
B(1), thiamine, helps…