Food Production

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What is a Standard Component?

A standard component is a pre-prepared ingredient that is used in the production of a food product.

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Advantages of Using Standard Components:


  • Ensures consistency
  • Saves time and effort
  • Less skill required by staff
  • Less specialist equipment needed
  • Can reduce costs
  • Components bought in bulk
  • Reduces risks - high risk foods prepared elsewhere


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Dis-advantages of Using Standard Components:


  • Less reliable - one manufacturer depends on another
  • Components can be more exspensive
  • Sessory qualities may not be as good as fresh ingredients
  • Large amount of storage space
  • Time needed for ordering and delivery(Just in time production)
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Standard Components

Examples of Standard Components are:

  • Pizza bases
  • Ready-made sauces
  • Ready-made cake mixes
  • Frozen pastry
  • Ready-made icing
  • Stock Cubes

Using a Standard Component ensures:

  • A standard size or weight
  • A standard flavour
  • Accurate proportion and ratio
  • A standard shape of a product
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What do manufacturers do when using a Standard Com

Standard components save time, sometimes costs, and ensure that a consitent product is produced. If a manufacturer wants to use a standard component from another supplier then it is essential that they produce a precise and accurate specification. Before deciding to use a standard component the manufacturer will check:

  • The nutritional profile of the product
  • Whether the product uses any additives such as artificail colours or flavours
  • Sensory qualities such as taste, texture and apperance
  • The source of ingredients, e.g. air miles, use of organic ingredients
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The use of standard components in the test kitchen

When making food products in the test kitchen it will be necessary to use standard compnents. When carrying out experiments and investigations it is acceptable to make use of some ready made ingredients.

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Production Systems (1):

Production systems consist of inputs, processes, outputs and feedback. There are different scales of food production that require different kinds of equipment. CAD and CAM can be used to design, test, and monitor processes. Standard components can be used to speed up production. Safety is ensured through hazard analysis and critical control point checks.

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Production Systems (2):

stages of the production process (

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Production Systems (3):

  • Inputs are everything that goes into the system, such as the ingredients.
  • Processes include weighing, mixing, shaping and forming of mixtures, cooking, cooling, and packaging. Checks are carried out throughout the process.
  • Output is the end product, complete with packaging.
  • Feedback can happen throughout the production process. Control checks flag up the need for alteration and improvement to the inputs or processes.
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Manufacturing Methods:

There are different types of manufacturing systems which are suitable for different scales of production.

  • One-off production is when a single product is made, for example a designer wedding cake. This is classed as a luxury food item.
  • Batch production involves making of a set number of identical products. Typically batch production is used in a bakery, where a certain number of different types of loaves will be made every morning.
  • Mass production is used to make foods on a large scale. The production line involves repetitive tasks so machines are often used. This saves time and helps lower the cost of production.
  • Continuous-flow production is a high-volume production method where machines run 24 hours a day. It is often used to produce milk and packet pizzas.
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What is Computer Aided Design?

Computers are essential in the development and manufacture of food products. Computer Aided Design (CAD) helps create, modify and communicate information efficiently. Computer modelling allows designers to test models and changes without carrying them out.


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What is CAD used for:

  • Nutritional analysis software provides nutritional information to help create foods for a balanced diet
  • Simulate changes to inputs and processes so the impact of modifications can be predicted
  • Calculate costs and amounts of ingredients needed for batch production
  • Packaging design and advertising decisions using graphics and 3D modelling software
  • Sensory profile software is used in testing and can analyse and rank results
  • Production flowcharts show where Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) checks need to be included in the factory processes.
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What is Computer Aided Manufacture and what is it

Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM) efficiently controls and monitors production using computers. Multiple processes can be carried out at the same time.

CAM is used to:

  • Monitor temperature
  • Monitor weight
  • Check pH
  • Control conveyor belt speed
  • Monitor quantities of ingredients
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Using CAM:


  • More consistent results
  • Reduces labour costs
  • Improves accuracy, reducing waste
  • Faster for high-volume production
  • Improved saftey and hygiene
  • Easier monitoring


  • Expensive to set up
  • Needs skilled operators
  • Can be slower for one-off or low-volume production
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Reducing Hazards:

Potential hazards in food production can be reduced by a system called hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP). This identifies what could go wrong in the production process and establishes checks that will prevent or reduce risks. This is called hazard analysis.

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Biological Hazard:


Biological hazard - foods become dangerously infected by bacteria which might lead to food poisoning. Symptoms of food poisoning can include diarrhoea, vomiting, headaches and fever.

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Physical Hazard:

Physical hazard - foreign materials can cause injury to the consumer. These could come from metal or plastic from factory machinery, or natural hazards like bones in fish.

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Chemical Hazard:

Chemical hazard - potentially dangerous chemicals like cleaning fluids or pesticides contaminate food. These could cause severe illness.

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Critical Control Points:

Critical control points (CCPs) are pre-determined checks that take place at specified points in the food production or preparation process. They include:

  • temperatures, using probes and thermometers
  • cooking times
  • ensuring food is handled correctly

The checks are documented and include the processes being checked, any faults and any action taken. Checks can be done by hand or using CAM.

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Personal Hygiene:

Good personal hygiene is essential during food preparation and production because it helps to reduce hazards. It is a legal requirement to report any illness to a supervisor.

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