Kobasa introduced the concept of hardiness and the hardy parsonality. This personality type was characterised by high levels of commitment, challenge and control. She proposed that these charateristics were not fixed but could be increased through training. Hardiness training is another form of CBT and has similarities with stress inoculation training. There are three stages:
- Focusing: in this stage the therapist encourages the client to focus on the physiological symptoms associated with stressful situations. This helps them identify sources of stress. The therapist will also help them acquire new skills and strategies for coping with stress.
- Reconstructing stressful situations: here the client is encouraged to think about recent stressful situations, and in particular how they might have turned out better and how they might have turned out worse. This is a…