3 stages to hardiness training
Hardiness training was proposed by Maddi, and Kobasa identified the 3 C's to the hardiness personality.
These three stages were:
Focusing: Client identfies physiological reactions to stress, e.g. muscle tension. Then the source of stress will be identified
Relieving stressful encounters: Client relives stressful situation, giving an insight into current coping strategies and how they could be more effective
Self Improvement: Insights help develop new techniques to deal with stress. Central to hardiness training is the idea that lifes stressors should be seen as challenges rather than stressors.
Evaluation of hardiness training
- Williams et al found hardy peopel using more problems focused techniques when faced with stressors
- Fletcher et al 2005 studied UK olympic swimmers who were given hardiness training to ensure they were commited to the challgenge of increased oerformcance levels, whilst leading everyday lives
- It focuses on the cause of stress, and skills learnt are transferable
- Generalisability is limited as studies were done on white middle class men. Basic aspects of personality and habits of coping with stress have to change which is very difficult
- Effectiveness and practicality is good in some areas, however, it isn't always the more practical, as the training requires money, motivation and time.