Kobasa identified a personality type that was resistant to stress, the Hard Personality. If some people are naturally resistant to stress, then we can teach others how to become more hardy and thus manage stress better.
Maddi & Kobasa devised a hardiness training programme to increase self confidence and sense of control. The ways in which to do this are:
Focusing: Client is taught how to recognise the biological/physiological signs of stress, such as muscle tenstion and increased heart rate, and also to identify the sources of stress.
Reliving Stress Encounters:
Reliving Stress Encounters: Client relives stress encounters and is helped to analyse these situations and their responses to them. This gives them an insight into their current coping strategies and how they might not be very effective.
Self improvement: The insights gained can now be used to move forward and learn new techniques when dealing with stress. Client is taught to see the stressors as challenges that they can control rather than problems that they must give into.