General obstacle question revision:

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  • Created by: Abigail
  • Created on: 08-11-13 10:32

Nationalism:

  • people began looking into a united Italy
  • although there was no solid Italian language, there were dialects and one of the most popular was Tuscan-Italian
  • there were several questions that arose regarding this subject;
    - could the local discontent (particularly the repressive rulers) be turned into enthusiasm
    - could they gain mass support, especially from peasants and industrial workers which was the majority of Italians
    - what sort of ruler would there be, monarchy or republic? What would the so many nationalist parties stand for? There was no real strength without unity
    - could nationalists gain enough support, especially from international countries, to remove Austria's power?

Austria's influence:

  • had control in practically every state
  • following the revolution in Naples 1820, King Ferdinand fled to Austria asking the Chancellor for help (Metternich) which he couldn't offer his help more. In result to this, there was a meeting held with the Great Powers to discuss and take action on any disturbances if necessary. From that moment on, Austria was the main cause in almost every revolution crushing until their removal from Italy in 1859
  • Metternich declared that unity for Italy was undesired and that there were not 'Italians' just Piedmontese, Neapolitans, etc. Austria's had some form of influence in each state as well, the brother of the Austrian Emperor, Ferdinand III became the Grand Duke of Tuscany (where he ruled in Tuscany) and in other central duchies they were controlled by Austrian-appointed rulers
  • Austrian troops were stationed in Papal States
  • Lombardy and Venetia were controlled directly from a viceroy in Vienna (on behalf of the ruler)

Catholic church:

  • the Pope made things incredibly difficult for liberals/nationalists after 1848 when his unpopular chief minister - Rossi - was murdered, he fled taking refuge in Naples
  • he returned and had a complete policy change, condemmed Italian nationalists; rejected risorgimento (rebirth); and refused to fight the Austrians, particularly in Papal States where his troops wanted them out (ALLOCUTION)
  • he denounced the Roman Republic
  • he excommunicated anyone who tried to reduce his…

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