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Stalin- Background
Background Good little throw ins for essays

WW1 and in the tsars Cossacks (30,000 soldiers), could have up to 12,000 lashings as a
punishment! Force has always been a part of Russian History

More people died on the set of `October' than actually did in the storming of…

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Key Phrases
1.a) Source Q's

* There are certainly some similarities between sources A and B in relation to...

* ... There are also differences between the views expressed in the sources.

* Both views have some merit, and there was certainly...

* With the latte view perhaps focusing on...…

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economic and industrial position to pre-war (1913), with minimal improvement
ideologically (teaching the peasants to endorse communism from the top down) and with a
peasant population who lacked motivation and respect for the communist regime.

NEP (New Economic Policy) 1921-1928

1914-17: WW1 total war ­ starvation, depression, no

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rationing abolished
State control of Heavy industry
- Coal, steel, oil, banking, transport state controlled

How successful was Russia under the NEP?

Aims: Lenin's `half way house' to get Russia back on its feet, improve economy, compromise
ideology to help communism in the long term, win hearts and minds of…

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NEP exaggerated: excuse for Stalin's poor treatment of peasantry (hiding grain)
Peasants wrote loads of complaints
Said there was still class division: communists and peasants
Authorities destroyed peasant unions (fought for peasants)

Did it win the hearts and minds? No.

1928 - Scrapped by Stalin (time for the `GREAT LEFT…

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Economically and industrially the NEP did not necessarily succeed in helping Russia, as the
end product, in 1928, was a Russia agriculturally similar to that of 1913. Alternatively, it
could be argued that the NEP benefitted the Russian economy through it's scrapping of the
`three course rotation' and bringing on…

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The Leadersheep Battle
Structure of the Party

Politburo*: Inner circle, fortress of solitude, alpha base, ground zero:
the hub. 7-9 members, daily meetings (top/ nerve center of the
party) set up in 1919.

The LEFT: Radicals (Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev)

The RIGHT: Moderates (Bukharin, Rykov and Tomsky)

The MIDDLE: Stalin…

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1924 ­ Lenin Dies - dictator, absolute leader of communist Russia, leader of NEP
(compromise) and endorser of show trials. Lacked clear successor

Created a power vacuum, leadership battle time!

Stalin Convinces Trotsky not to attend Funeral (damage political rep) + Stalin used
it to put himself across as Lenin's…

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Contender Strengths Weaknesses

Mikail Tomsky Genuine Supporter + Chairmen of Opposed Lenin (wanted to limit trade
Central council of Trade unions (big unions) + lacked character (dull,
group) boring, not politically cunning)

Alexei Rykov Was a peasant (model leader), Outspoken + frank (not politicians
Chairman of Supreme Economic best qualities),…

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General Secretary Party (1922): control what was discussed and who got
told certain information! Position in Orgburo and Secretariat

Decides who attends Congress: ensures loyalty + supporters (favours...
people wanted to get into congress + Stalin's the man to do it). Builds Powerbase.

Got rid of Students and Soldiers…


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