AS History Mussolini Revision Guide (OCR)

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AS History Mussolini Revision Guide (OCR)
How effectively did the Liberals deal with the preWW1 problems in Italy?
Problem Dealt with it well Didn't deal with it well
Economic Neutral in industrial disputes and Northsouth industry divide increased industry in the north
encouraged negotiating south still far behind and felt alienated money to help south not
Subsidised industries and nearly enough
nationalised railways in 1905 Being neutral in industrial disputes upset elites and industrialists
Hydroelectric schemes who saw this as the state siding with workers
Tariffs on competing foreign imports No empire so little land to use to improve economy humiliating
Improved industries in the north defeat at Adowa and only able to control Libya for short times
Real wages rose 25% by 1913 Inequality of wealth tried to redistribute wealth to the peasants
Social insurance and pension very little changed as the Liberals wanted to keep their land
schemes were established 0.01% of the population owned 50% of the land
Italy was able to control Libya in 1911 Debt of 2450 million lire meant high tax for the poor
Tariffs put on imports from other countries who then did the
same, which damaged trade and caused a banking crisis
Infrastructure development was costly and required high tax,
reducing peasant living standards further.
Libya 19911 peasants were upset as they were conscripted to
fight in a war they didn't understand and had no interest in and
had to pay higher tax
Humiliating defeat at Adowa in 1896 was expensive and had no
benefit
Social Northsouth social divide (incomes in Northsouth social divide reforms didn't go far enough most
the south were half incomes in the children didn't go to school in the south and people preferred to
north) improved worker's rights (one join crime organisations (mafia) rather than work
day off a week), outlawed Red week publicity for Socialism, frightened upper/middle
employment of children under 12, cut classes, showed Giolitti's policy to try absorb workers had failed
taxes on basic foods, free anti malaria on June 3rd 1914 demonstrators were shot causing riots in major
drug, increased expenditure by 50% cities so radicals seized control of government buildings and in
on public schemes unemployment "Red Romagna" two areas declared themselves independent.
reduced, wages improved, adult
illiteracy rates reduced, death rates
fell
Red week headed off by government
troops before any real harm could be
done
Political Catholics policies involving no Catholics the Roman Question wasn't solved, causing
divorce and private church schools, dissatisfaction the pope announced that any Catholics in
Gentiloni Pact Catholics agreed to politics would be excommunicated ­ 90% of the population were
support the Liberals by 1911 Catholic.
Nationalists (relatively small but Socialists (growing in popularity) social reforms, stayed neutral
selling lots of newspapers) tried to in industrial disputes reforms didn't go far enough so Socialists
gain territory resulted in failure and unhappy ­ in 1900 they obtained 32 seats in parliament.
humiliating defeats, nationalists Nationalists joined WW1 nationalists happy but angry about
displeased unpatriotic behaviour humiliating defeat at Adowa in 1896
Hard for a government to stay in angered the Nationalists.
power used transformismo (bribery) Government seen as only for elites (majority of politicians were
worked for a while upper class northern elites) Giolitti extended the vote to all men
Only 2% had suffrage so deputies over 30 in 1912 voters couldn't be easily bribed so
were elected with around 300 votes

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Giolitti extended the vote to all men transformismo couldn't be used, had little knowledge of politics
over 30 in 1912 upset liberals who feared increased church or worker influence…read more

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What was the most significant effect of WW1 on Italy?
Effect Major significance Less significant
Economic Unemployment caused people to join extreme groups to occupy their time and Wartime
increase employment industries caused
Inflation prices 4x higher in 1918 than in 1914 people couldn't afford products, economic boom during
displeased with the Liberals middle class savings were wiped out the war more artillery
Debt 85 billion lira hard for people to believe the Liberals could pay it back than Britain, built over
Increased northsouth divide…read more

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What was the most significant factor that caused Mussolini to get into power in 1922?
Factor Major significance Less significant
Mussolini Copied D'Annunzio to make Fascism seem like a military movement black Mussolini almost lost
shirts, fascist salute control of the fascists by
Used Il Popolo to get publicity trying to do a deal with the
Formed PNF to make fascism more respectable Socialists ­ The Pact of
Mussolini skilfully put fascist names on the liberal candidate list and was Pacification.…read more

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Fear of · Success of 1917 Bolshevik revolution Not everyone feared the
Socialism · Land redistribution land given to peasants, authorised by the Liberals Socialists as they came
· Factory occupations in September 1920 first in the 1919 and 1921
· Socialist food riots forced authorities to impose price controls damaged elections.…read more

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How effectively did Mussolini consolidate power after 1922?
(Was Mussolini a true dictator?)
Threatening Effectively consolidated (Mussolini was a true dictator) Less effectively consolidated
group (Mussolini wasn't a true
dictator)
Existing In 1925, Mussolini passed the Leggi Fascistissime which 75% of those tried in
organisations banned free trade unions special courts were acquitted
and groups In January 1926 alone, 2000 repressive decrees were The use of castor oil for
passed.…read more

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The Concordat was part
fourteen senior ministers were fascists of the Lateran Treaty (1929) where
Mussolini persuaded parliament to grant him emergency Catholicism was recognised as the
powers for a year. Hence he could pass any law he wanted without state religion ­ made Mussolini
having to consult parliament first look weak for having to make
Black shirt violence and ballot rigging ensured that fascists concessions.…read more

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Did Mussolini's domestic economic policies succeed?
Policy Succeeded Failed
State intervention The IMI was set up to support banks Italy did not escape the depression.
and overcome so Italy was not as badly affected by the A number of large companies collapsed.
the depression depression as many other countries. Car production fell by 50% due to the
The IRI took over industrial shares depression.
held by banks and those of companies in
trouble.
The IRI reorganised production to
prevent collapse.…read more

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By 1940, only 20% of Italy's raw material
drained (e.g. the Pontine Marches) and needs were met by domestic production.
created jobs. Imports of meat and eggs increased.
New cities were built in the drained The Battle of the Marshes was a fraud as
areas (e.g. Aprilla, Latina and Sabaudia), only 80,000 hectares were reclaimed, not onesixth of
which gained international praise and was the area of Italy, as the government insisted.
propagated to be a defence against malaria.…read more

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Did Mussolini's domestic social policies succeed?
Policy Succeeded Failed
Cult of Il The Cult of Il Duce seemed to be The Cult of Il Duce was a scam.
Duce successful because opinions towards Mussolini were Mussolini would leave the light on while he
generally positive compared to the dislike of the slept so that people believed he worked 20 hours a
Liberals and Socialists. day.
He was presented as a new Caesar and He once wrestled a lion, however the lion
saviour of Italy.…read more

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