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Labour's 1945 victory
a majority of 148
Churchill's personal popularity as a war time leader did not carry over into peace time
The Conservatives were still blamed for the Great Depression of the 1930s and for the failure to
prepare Britain for war in time.
There was a feeling…

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Minister for Aircraft Production during the war
in 1946 he helped to prepare the way for Indian independence
From 1947 he was Chancellor of the Exchequer during the Austerity period and he called on the
nation to make any number of sacrifices and to put up with a number of…

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The Family Allowances Act 1945 ­ provided weekly payments for every child after the first.
Money was paid directly to the mother.

The two main parties have argued about how it is funded and how efficient it is, but there has
been no difference between them over the need to…

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if demand was high, then industrial decline, as happened in the Great Depression of the 1930s,
would be avoided and jobs would be preserved.
The focus was to keep employment high.
only agency with enough power to keep demand high was the government
Government should use budgets and spending to…

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A peaceful movement for Indian independence was led by Mahatma Ghandi.
The British envoy, Earl Mountbatten, proposed a division of the sub-continent into India, which
would be mostly Hindu, and Pakistan and East Pakistan, which would be mostly Muslim.
Independence was granted in 1947.
riots and massacres, to such an…

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Welfare was expensive, especially in a time of economic bankruptcy. By borrowing money to
pay for welfare, Britain was saddled with debt and economic growth was slow. (By contrast
West Germany focussed on industrial recovery before turning to welfare).
The NHS benefited the middle classes more than those most needy,…

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Churchill and Eden Governments 1951 ­ 55

Churchill was 77 when he became PM for the second time and in many was he was a figurehead.
health was failing and he was incapacitated by a stroke for months in 1953,

However, his government introduced a number of important developments;

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Short of money, in July 1956, Nasser announced the nationalisation of the Suez Canal, and that
foreign ships would now have to pay to pass through the canal.

The French were keen to teach Arabic nationalists a lesson (they were having their own
problems with nationalists in Algeria).
Eden had…

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Officially this was due to bad health, but his reputation, domestically and internationally, had
been shattered, and it would have been impossible for his to carry on, even if fully fit.

The Significance of the Suez Affair
British troops were withdrawn not because of military failure, but of the failure…

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3) There was a failure to invest in research and development, or to improve employer ­ worker
relations. By the mid 1960s Britain's rate of economic growth was low.

`Never had it so good' speech
The warning that Macmillan was trying to give was lost as the press and public…


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