OCR A Level Comparitive Studies

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Historical UK

Development began a thousand years before USA

Expansion overseas

Sport developed UK traditions throughout the empire

Cricket reflected the British class system and English Values

English Public Schools

Taking part was more important then winning

UK braced commercialism in late 20th century 

Fair Play and Sportsmanship

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Historical USA

Young culture

History of Frontierism

Adopted Isolation to develop new sports

Reject English sports (Cricket)

Win Ethic ( Lombardianism and professionalism)

Cult of manliness

Commercialism in early 20th century

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Geographical UK

Population 62 million (high population density) 

Remote areas (no areas of genuine wilderness)

One type of Climate (limiting potential for winter sport persuits)

Good rail, air and motorway links throughout country

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Geographical USA

300 million (low population density)

Large unpopulated areas of wilderness (great outdoors)

Wide range of climate

Winter climate (mountain ranges) Winter olympic games

Good travel for international communication same as UK

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Government Policy UK

Monarch - head of State, Prime minister - head of government

Decentralised through local government

Professional sports are controlled by Governing bodies

Decentralisation is less evident in Governments national curriculum

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Government Policy USA

Strong democratic Influence

No Class system

Decentralised model of control

No national curriculum - Government have little responsibility for sport (self funded)

Capitalist economy  (encouraged Commercialisation of sport)

Professional sport operates as a business to maximise profit

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Commercialism UK

Amateur ethic til end of 20th Century

Participation was more important 

Strong input through governing bodies (not to a business extent)

Coverage in 1960's was avoided

1960s only 10 sports could be shown on 2 channels

Was presented in a traditional Way

Not as much sponsorship in 1960's much slowly accepted
 

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Commercialism USA

Professional sports are commercial businesses

Lombardian ethos created an image of entertainment

Sport organised as a business for profit making

A great amount of Media coverage

Sport was presented as entertainment

Big four embraced business opportunities

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Social UK

The right to freedom 

Teamwork (public schools) due to mixed economy

Fair play over rides win at all costs

Winning more important now due to professionalism

Participation rather then competitive 

Overcome discrimination 

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Social USA

American dream

Wealthiest people in USA can dominate society

Win at all costs

WASP in USA was dominating culture

Hegemoney

Stacking

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School Sport UK

Curriculum subject up to age of 16 

High status

Determined by government

Perceived as a essential education experience

P.E has been placed to achieve high academic results

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School Sport USA

Daily P.E has been withdrawn in many states

School board controls curriculum

Individual states have control - strong teacher autonomy

P.E considered limited educational value

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Promotion of Sport UK

Sports colleges

School Sport partnerships

Professional development of teachers and coaches

Step into sport (14-19YO to be involved with sports leadership)

Club links (Strengthen links between schools and sport clubs)

Sporting playgrounds (Primary school playgrounds promoting play)

High quality physical education and school sport 

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Promotion of Sport USA

Physical education for process (Improve quality)

Adapted physical programmes  (special needs)

Title IX government legislation  (gender/equality)

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Participation rates UK

30% of young people are overweight

38% of adults overweight

Fitness levels all time low

Mass participation rates are higher in UK than USA

Traditions of amateur commitment and team involvement

Significant increase in gym membership in the UK

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Participation rates USA

15% of  6-19 year olds are regarded as clinically obese

40 million people considered obese

75% of Americans are not reaching basic activity recommendations

Gym and Jogging culture have been evident since 1950's

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