Sport Psychology (ALL TOPICS) OCR PE

Contains all you need to know on all topics in Sport Psychology:

  • Personality
  • Attitudes
  • Achievement Motivation
  • Attribution Theory
  • Aggression 
  • Groups and Teams
  • Leadership
  • Social Facilitation and Inhibition
  • Goal Setting
  • Self-Confidence
  • Attentional Control
  • Emotional Control
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  • Created by: RebeccaK*
  • Created on: 26-05-12 18:50
Preview of Sport Psychology (ALL TOPICS) OCR PE

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Physical Education Sports Psychology
Contents
Personality
Theories of Personality
Trait Perspectives:
Social Learning Perspectives:
Interactionist Approaches:
Personality Profiling:
Attitudes
Nature of Attitudes:
Prejudices:
Influence of Attitudes:
Origins of Attitudes:
Socialisation:
Past Experience:
Social Learning:
Media:
Components of Attitudes:
Methods of Changing Attitudes:
Cognitive Dissonance Theory:
Persuasive Communication:
Achievement Motivation
Need to Achieve:
Need to Avoid Failure:
Sport Specific Achievement Motivation:
Attribution Theory
Reasons for Success and Failure in Sport:
Weiner's Model:
Strategies to
Promote Mastery Orientation:
Avoid Learned Helplessness:
Attribution Retraining:
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Aggression
Nature of
Aggression:
Assertion:
Causes of Aggressive Behaviour:
Theories of Aggression:
Instinct Theory (Freud):
Social Learning Theory (Bandura):
FrustrationAggression Hypothesis (Dollard):
Aggressive Cue Hypothesis (Berkowitz):
Methods of Eliminating Aggression:
Groups and Teams
Nature of a Group/Team:
Steiner's Model of Group Performance:
Knowledge of
Motivational Losses:
Coordination Losses:
Negative Influences:
Factors affecting Formation/Team Cohesion:
Factors affecting Group Participation:
Leadership
Effective Leadership:
Characteristics of Leaders:
Knowledge of
Emergent Leaders:
Prescribed Leaders:
Leadership Theories:
Trait Theory:
Social Learning Theory:
Interactionist Theory:
Chelladurai's multidimensional model of Leadership
Social…read more

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DistractionConflict Theory:
Homefield Advantage:
Link with
Dominant Response (Zajonc):
Cause and effect of Evaluation Apprehension:
Strategies to Combat Social Inhibition:
Goal Setting
Importance and relevance of Goal Setting on
Participation:
Performance:
Factors affecting Goal Setting (SMARTER):
Shortterm, Intermediateterm and Long term goals (BAHL):
Outcome Goals:
Performance Goals:
SelfConfidence
Knowledge of
Sport Confidence (Vealey):
Traits Sport Confidence:
Competitiveness Orientation:
State Sports confidence:
Self Efficacy (Bandura) and influence on:
Performance accomplishments:
Vicarious Experiences:
Verbal Persuasion:
Emotional and Physiological Arousal:
Raising SelfEfficacy:
Balanced Active Healthy Lifestyle:
Attentional Control…read more

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Ability Level:
Complexity of Task:
Peak Flow Experience:
Zone of Optimum Functioning:
Nature and Influence of
Anxiety:
State/Trait Distinction:
Anxiety Management Techniques
Personality
Theories of Personality
Trait Perspectives:
`Describe theories of personality and how they affect sports performance. [part of 20] June 2010
(Theories)
(Trait)
1. Trait perspectives.
Natural/innate behaviours.
Type A/Type B.
Eysenck/Cattell described.
2. This involves characteristics that are stable and enduring/behaviour is generalised.
Examples of these e.g. always aggressive.
In sport you will display similar behaviours to other situations.
3.…read more

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Their recovery from stress is rapid. Recovery from stress is slow.
Narrow Band:
Type A: Type B:
High stress/arousal level. Low stress/arousal level.
Very competitive. Not concerned with competition.
Lacks tolerance. Very patient.
Needs to be in control of the task. Does not need to be in control of the task.
Fast worker. Works slowly.
Social Learning Perspectives:
`Describe theories of personality and how they affect sports performance. [part of 20] June 2010
(Theories)
(Social Learning)
4. Social learning theory.
We observe and copy behaviour.…read more

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Critical Evaluation of profiling)
(Negative)
10. Profiling results to vague/unreliable.
Do not link cause and effect.
11. Results cannot be generalised (to the behaviours of others)/you act differently in different situations.
Lack external validity.
Sample not representative.
12. Results lack ecological validity.
Are not true to real life/do not relate to sports performance.
13. Profiling too subjective.
Results explained differently by different people.
Unreliable interpretations/stereotyping.
14. Links between personality and sports performance/sport choice/task persistence too tenuous.
Sceptical approach.
15. Too many demand characteristics/lying (on questionnaires).…read more

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Can be unstable can therefore be changed.
Attitude object `The people, subject or situation towards which an attitude is directed.'
Prejudices:
Prejudice `A predetermined view which may be unfairly biased.'
Often based on race, gender, age, physical ability, sexual orientation or negative attitudes to officials.
Detrimental to sport and can reduce participation in certain groups:
May develop due to: social learning and/or socialisation, past experience, media hype.
Can decrease participation by:
o Could be directed directly toward sport in general.…read more

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Bad experiences, e.g. losing or injury, can lead to low selfconfidence and perception of ability as
low. This may lead to negative attitudes (learned helplessness).
Social Learning:
Involves imitating the attitudes of significant others .
If they have positive attitudes, it is likley you'll copy them, espeically if you are praised (reinforcement).
If they have negative attitudes, it is likely that you will feel the same.
Media:
Highprofile role models in mdeia often display positive attitudes.…read more

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When? The context/situation in which the message is delivered, its more likely to be effective if
there's time to digest information, with adequate resources, and the approach is not seen as
confrontational, with possible support from others.
`Using examples from sport in your answer, explain how negative attitudes are changed to positive
attitudes.' [4] January 2010
1. Cognitive dissonance may change attitudes.
2. Change one element of the triadic model and other elements will change to gain consonance.
3.…read more

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Does not welcome feedback.
May experience learned helplessness.
Attributes failure internally.
Failure seen as a route to further failure.
Success attributed to external factors.
Is not competitive likes tasks with a high possibility of success and a low incentive.
Sport Specific Achievement Motivation:
Competitiveness `The degree to which a person has the motivation to approach and achieve success in
sport.…read more

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