OCR A Level PE paper 2

  • Created by: BethLegg
  • Created on: 03-06-19 18:23

Classification of skills

Discrete --------------------------------Serial ------------------------Continuous 

brief                                            series of discrete                  no clear beginning/end 

penalty flick hockey                    triple jump                                            cycling

Self-paced --------------------------------------------------Externally paced

performer controls rate                                                                   environment controls rate

javelin throw                                                                                    tackle in rugby

Simple -------------------------------------------------------------------Complex

few decisions needed                                                                      many judgements 

swimming                                                                                         tennis serve

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Classification of skills cont.

Gross -----------------------------------------------------------------------Fine

large muscle groups                                                                        small movements

Shot put                                                                                           snooker shot

Open ----------------------------------------------------------------------Closed

affected by environment                                                            predictable environment

pass in football                                                                          gymnastics routine

High organisation -----------------------------------------Low organisation

sub-routines closely linked                                                separate sub-routines easily

cartwheel                                                                          trampolining routine

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Methods of practice

Part - practice isolated sub-routine - use if dangerous/low organisation - gain confidence- less kinaesthesis - backswing in tennis serve only

Whole- practice skill in entirety - high organisation/nature of skill - kinaesthesis/skill flows - demotivating/information overload- golf swing

Whole-part-whole - whole, then part, then whole (as above) - serial/low organisation - correct weaknesses/some feel - time consuming - swimming stroke, leg kick, swimming stroke

Progressive part- chaining A-B-AB-C-ABC - complex/serial/low organisation - learn links between sub-routines/transfer into whole - may not flow/ time consuming - trampolining routine

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Types of practice

Massed- no breaks/continuous - discrete/high motivation - groove skills/simulate fatigue - not useful if unfit - taking shots continuously around the d in netball

Distributed- rest intervals - continuous skills/ beginners - feedback/maintain motivation - not useful for discrete - 100m sprint followed by rest then sprint again

Fixed- stable environment - closed - habitual/events where environment never changes - not useful for open skills - discus 

Varied- many environments- open- develop LTM/develop decision-making - not used for closed/self paced - small sided game of football where tactics change

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Transfer of skills

Proactive transfer- previously learnt affects skill being learnt - basic shot to advanced shot in tennis

Retroactive transfer- new skill affects previously learnt - change in stance in forehand stroke

Positive transfer- skill enhances the learning of another - throwing ball and cricket bowl

Negative transfer- skill hinders the learning of another - tennis and badminton (wrist)

Bilateral transfer- transfer from one limb to another - Ronnie O'Sullivan

Optimise positive and limit negative:

variable practices that emulate real ; make aware of transferable elements ; clear demos ; wide range of motor skills 

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Operant Conditioning


Thorndike's Laws; Exercise, effect; readiness

Trial and Error

Positive reinforcement

Negative reinforcement



Example: coach tells footballer to only score in the right hand side of the goal, and will have to do 10 push ups if they miss.  Exercise- repeat shooting strengthens SR bond ; Effect- satisfaction strengthens SR bond; Readiness- injury = ineffective shooting

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Cognitive theory of learning


Learn skill as a whole

Realistic situation

Use mental rehearsal


Maybe too complex- tennis serve

Maybe too dangerous - tumbling routine

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Observational learning


copy behaviour of significant other

visual guidance- demonstration



motor reproduction


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Stages of learning


full of errors/forming mental image/demos vital

demonstrate javelin throw/no flow between run-up and excecution of throw


attends relevant cues/errors are fewer/verbal feedback

becomes more consistent with run up and throw flow/corrects themselves



no errors in whole movement/knows best way to throw further 

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Verbal; describe and explain activity

identify errors/attention/motivation                             information overload/inaccurate=hinderance

Visual; demonstration of movement

mental picture/observational learning                       may be unclear/could form bad habits if wrong

Manual and mechanical; Ma=manipulate body; Me= use of aid

confidence/ isolate skill                                             over-restrictive/false kinaesthesis

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Intrinsic; internal proprioceptors

correct immediately/no reliance                                     not for cognitive

Extrinsic- coach gives

improvements/not bias                                                  unrealible/no kinaesthesis

Positive- successful movement

SR formed/motivate/self-esteem                                 some ignore/inappropriate SR bonds

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Feedback cont.

Negative- incorrect movement

some motivated/autonomous                                                demotivating/detrimental for learning

Knowledge of results-outcome of movements

performer sees outcome/motivating                                     may demotivate if unsuccessful

Knowledge of performance- quality of movement 

know good performance/motivate                                       demotivate if unsuccessful

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Atkinson and Shiffren's memory model


limitless capacity/ 1 second/ selective attention


7 items/ < 1 minute/ chunking


limitless capacity/ limitless duration/ movement skills

simplifies process/ explains how brain damage causes amnesia

too simplified/ does not show between STM and LTM

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Craik and Lockhart's memory model

Memory trace

LTM if considered, understood and has meaning




explains if we understand, we remember/ longer we consider= more we remember it

longer doesn't equal better recall/ doesn't take into account individual differences

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Memory related to performance



Avoiding overload


Mental imagery

Organising information

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Type A; highly competitive/works fast/prone to suffer stress

Type B; unambitious/doesn't enjoy being in control/less prone to stress

Stable; predictable behaviour

Neurotic; unpredictable emotions

Extrovert; seeks social situations

Introvert; good at concentrating

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Theories of personality

Trait- innate - consistent behaviour - does not take into account the environment

SLT- learn from others - changes due to environment - not everyone copies the behaviour around them

Interactionist- trait and SLT have a role - more realistic 

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predisposition to act in a certain way


cognitive disonance;

one part of triadic model inconsistent

persuasive communication affected by;

the persuader/the message/the receiver

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Motivation and drive


psychological drive to succeed

intrinsic and extrinsic (intrinsically linked)


directed, motivated, or 'energised' behaviour that an individual has towards a specific goal

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Readiness of action

somatic and cognitive

Drive theory; linear relationship

increase likelihood of dominant response                            too simple

Inverted U theory- increase until optimum then decrease

consider personality, type of task, stage of learning and level of experience

more accurate/more detailed                                             still too simple

Catastrophe theory- increase until optimum then sudden decrease (S+A)

shows aftermath of sudden drop                                       not all have a sudden drop

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Somatic- increased BP, sweating

Cognitive- confusion, negative thoughts

Trait-relates to personality

Competitive trait- perceive competitions as threatening

State- emotional state at any given time

Zone of optimal functioning:




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Aggression theories

Instinct theory-

natural/innate/animalistic/survival instinct

Frustration-aggression hypothesis-



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Aggression theories cont.


aggression leant from others/imitation reinforced by social acceptance

Aggressive cue hypothesis-

aggression occurs when a specific stimuli is present

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Social facilitaion and inhibition

facilitaion= positive influence

inhibition= negative influence


presence of audience increases arousal;increase in arousal triggers dominant response; well-learnt= correct; new= incorrect

Evaluation apprehension;

increase arousal/increase HR/detrimental effect of performance

Strategies to minimise social inhibition;

imagery techniques, relaxation techniques, training with audience present, decrease importance of event

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Social facilitation and inhibiton cont.

Home vs Away

More likely to win at home; research suggests it's harder to win at home


Type A worse in front of audience

Extroverts better in front of audience

Levels of experience

previous/elite/peers for eiltes improve performance in front of crowd

Types of skill

gross=high arousal ; fine/complex = low arousal

Other factors- nature of crowd, proximity of crowd

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Groups and teams


depend on leader/little agreement/roles unclear


decisions difficult/focus clearer/cliques


more agreement/roles accepted/strong sense of unity


more strategies/team trusted/personable

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Groups and teams cont.

Festinger- cohesiveness is 'the total field of forces which act on members to remain in the group'


group integration- group as a whole

individual attraction- individual attraction to the group

Steiner- actual productivity=potential productivity/losses due to faulty processes

Co-ordination losses and/or motivation losses

Ringelmann effect/Latane

social loafing

eliminate by: highlight individual performances; social support;feedback;peer pressure

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Goal Setting

direct attention/increase effort/increase motivation

Specific- to sport and individual
Measurable- assessment
Achievable- realistic goals
Recorded- monitor progress
Time-phased - split into short-term leading to long-term

Types of goal:




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Attribution- Weiner's model

Ability- internal, stable, uncontrollable

Task difficulty- external, stable, uncontrollable

Effort- internal, unstable, controllable

Luck- external, unstable, uncontrollable

Learned helplessness- belief that failure is inevitable

Mastery orientation- motivated to become an expert in skill development

Attribution retraining- should be encouraged to effort

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Sport confidence

Effects: performance, participation and self-esteem

Vealey's model;

                                                             sporting context

                               SC trait                                                       Competitive orientation

                                                             SC state

                                                            Behavioural response

                                                           Subjective outcome

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confidence we have in specific situations

Performance accomplishments

Vicarious experiences

Verbal persuasion

Emotional arousal

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Characteristics- communication/high motivation/knowledge of sport

Emergent- leader through hard work

Prescribed- appointed by higher authority

Authoritarian- all desicions/task-oriented/hostile groups/dangerous task

Democratic- person-oreinted/group involvement/advanced/females

Laissez-faire - little support/elite/develop creativity/ assessing the group

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Leadership theories


born with qualities/stable qualities/ people in sport generally stable with leadership


learn from others/vicarious learning/takes environment into account


born with certain, but adapt to situations/may not be leaders everyday

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Chelladurai's model of leadership

Situational characteristics- environment, time, size of group

Leader characteristics- personality/style

Member characteristics- skill level/attitudes

Required behaviour- style needed

Actual behaviour- what leader chooses to do

Preferred behaviour- style group prefer

Performance and satisfaction- overall performance and level of satisfaction

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Causes- competition, conflict,climate and frustration

Cognitive stress management:

mental rehearsal

positive self-talk

goal setting

negative thought stopping

rational thinking



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Stress cont.

Somatic stress management

centering- redirect energy to centre of body

progressive muscular relaxation- 'aware' of tension and then 'let it go'

biofeedback- control muscular tension by relaxing and to sound

breathing control- slow, deep breaths

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