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Emily Summers

Hollander (1971) proposed his theory of the structure of personality, illustrated above.

Psychological Core Typical responses Role related behaviour
Core of the personality, the Usual way the individual The least predictable and
attitudes, values, principles responds to situations, changing part of
and ideas the person holds similar to…

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Emily Summers

Dimensions of personality
Extrovert ­ Introvert dimension (E)
He says that humans want a standard of stimulation that is comfortable with and this
will change with different people.
Reticular activating system is the part of the brain controlling arousal levels

Extrovert Introvert
Biology RAS reduces info coming in…

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Emily Summers

16PF in 1965
The 16PF gives a personality profile
He says that mood, motivation and situation the individual is in when taking the
test will influence scores


A research study aiming to discover whether personality correlated to the skill
level an athlete could achieve found that…

Page 4

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Emily Summers

Personality isn't enduring/stable, a core. It is founded on the experiences we have in
the social world.

Walter Mischel said there was not a lot of evidence that people behave consistently in
lots of situations

Their behaviour is dependent on the situation they are in

He says we…

Page 5

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Emily Summers

Attention: A girl sees how a player relaxes and is calm and controlled, she wins the
netball match.

Retention: The girl remembers the relaxed stance of the player and confidence, and
her success.

Motor reproduction: When this girl is losing in netball she models that players
behaviour, looking…

Page 6

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Emily Summers

Personal factors + The situation where the behaviour occurs

When the situational factors are strong they are more likely to affect behaviour than
personal factors. E.g. a player
normally calm in an important
match they're winning in they
may respond

When situational factors are
weak personal factors…

Page 7

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Emily Summers

Validity The test should measure what it says it

Because no definition of mood or
personality is set then how do we know
what they mean and how can we be
sure of what the test measures?

If tests show accurate measurements
of traits then behaviour should…

Page 8

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Emily Summers

testing is sensitive and the testers
should not go further than

The athletes permission and details of
what's involved must be given, and the
results are confidential only with their
permission may be used.

The tester must be qualified.


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