GCSE EDEXCEL PE FULL NOTES!!

everything you need to know for GCSE EDEXCEL PE !

apologies that they are not in colour or anything would have been a bit more useful 

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  • Created on: 06-04-11 11:09

HEALTHY ACTIVE LIFESTYLE

Healthy, active lifestyle:
a lifestyle which contributes positively to physical, mental and social wellbeing, and includes regular excercise and physical activity. 

Exercise: 
a form of physical activity which maintains or improves healthy and/or physical fitness

Health:
a state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmiry 

Fitness: 
ability to meet the demands of the enviroment 

Performance:
how well a task is completed  

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THE FIVE COMPONENTS OF HEALTH-RELATED EXERCISE

Cardiovascular fitness:
the abiltiy to exercise the entire body for long periods of time

Muscular strength:
the amount of force a muscle can excert against a restistance

Muscular endurance:
the abiltiy to use the voluntary muscles many times without getting tired 

Flexibilty: 
the range of movement possible at a joint 

Body composition: 
the percentage of body weight that is fat, muscle and bone 

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THE SIX COMPONENTS OF SKILL-RELATED FITNESS

Agility:
the ability to change the position of the body quickly and control the movement of the whole body

Balance:
the ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body above the bass of support with reference to static (stationary), or dynamic (changing) conditions of movement, shape and orientation

Coordination:
the ability to use two or more body parts together

Power:
the abiltiy to undertake strength performances quickly. Power = strength x speed

Reaction time:
the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of movement

Speed:
the differential rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time


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THE EXERCISE SESSION

A training session, match or competition should always be split into three sections which are performed in the same logical order: 

- warm up 
(essential to: 
-prevent injury
- improve performance
- practice skills before the event/match/game
- prepare psychologically for the event

Three parts to the warm up:
1. Cardiovascular warm-up 
2. Stretching 
3. Specific Skills practice  

- main activity 
- cool-down
cooling down is important as it disperses lactic acid - a poison -produced during exercise which helps to prevent stiffness and soreness in the muscles 
 

 

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HEALTH RELATED EXERCISE FITNESS TESTS

Cooper's / treadmill 12-minute run test:
(cardiovascular fitness + muscular endurance) 

Hand grip strength test: 
(muscular strength)

Sit and reach flexibilty test: 
(flexibility) 

Havard step test: 
(cardiovascular fitness + muscular endurance) 

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SKILL-RELATED FITNESS TESTS

Illinois agility run
(agility) 

Standing stork test 
(balance)

Sergeant jump test
(leg power)

Standing board jump
(power)

Ruler drop test
(reaction time)

30-metre sprint 
(speed) 

Three ball juggle
(coordination) 

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PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING

Individual differences/needs:
matching training to the requirements of an individual 

Specificity: 
matching training to the requirements of an activity 

Progressive overload:
to gradually increase the amount of overload so that fitness gains occur, but without potential for injury

Rest:
the period of time alloted to recovery

Recovery:
the time required for the repair of damage to the body caused by training or competition  

FITT:
Frequency (how often to train)

Intensity (how hard someone trains)
Time (how long each training session is)
Type (the method of training used) 
used to increase the amount of work the body does, in order to achieve overload)

Reversibility: 
any adaptation that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training   

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AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC FITNESS

Aerobic: 
'with oxygen'
if exercise is not too fast and is steady, the heart can supply all the oxygen muscles need
eg - 1500m run 

Anaerobic: 
'without oxygen' 
if exercise is done in short, fast bursts, the heart cannot supply blood and oxygen in muscles as fast as the cells use them
eg - 100m sprint  

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BENEFITS OF TAKING PART IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

Physical 

- contribute to a good physical health 

- physical challenge (can i do it?)

- increase fitness

- improve performance

- improve any of the health related exercise factors:
cardiovascular fitness
muscular strength
muscular endurance
flexibility 
body composition  

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BENEFITS OF TAKING PART IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

Social: 

- mix with others

- make new friends

- meet current friends

- develop teamwork/ cooperation

- work with others  

Aesthetic appreciation: 
to be able to see the beauty in a performance  

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BENEFITS OF TAKING PART IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

Mental (psychological):

- relieve and/or prevent stress and tension 

- mental challenge (can i do it?) 

- increase self-esteem and confidence 

- help the individual feel good 

- contribute to enjoyment of life 

- competition  

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INFLUENCES ON TAKING PART

CHIRPS 

1. Cultural factors 
(disability, age, gender) 

2. Health and wellbeing 
(illness and health problems)

3. Image
(fashion, media coverage) 

4. Resources 
(availability, location, access, time) 

5. People
(family, friends) 

6. Socio-economic 
(cost)  

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR GETTING INVOLVED

1. Government Initiatives 
policy that 'all pupils receive their entitlement too two hours of high quality Physcial Education (PE) per week' 

2. PE School Sport and Club Links (PESSCL) 
The government set up the PESSCL strategy to increase the take up  of sporting opportunities by 5-16 year olds  

3. The organisation Sport England 
start- increase participation in sport in order to improve the health of the nation ~
stay- retain people in sport through clubs, sports facilities, coaches.. 
succeed- create opportunities for talented performers to achieve success 

4. The Youth Sport Trust TOP Link 
(sports leaders) 

5. Active Kids programme  
various supermarkets run voucher programmes where vouchers collected by parents can be used by schools to buy sporting equipment.  

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SPORTS PARTICIPATION PYRAMID

Foundation: 
may not understand all the rules at the stage and developing basic skills 
- eg primary PE lessons

Participation:
young people begin to participate regularly in a specific activity for enjoyment 
- eg sports clubs

Performance: 
people begin to concentrate on sport specific skills and to develop skills in these sports
- eg playing for a team/club where you receive some coaching  

Elite: 
peak of the pyramid where individuals reach sporting excellence 
- eg competing at national and international level

The number of people participating gets smaller at each increasing level. 

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GOAL SETTING

Setting SMART goals 

Specific 
knowing exactly what the goal is 
'i want to run 100m further in my cooper's run test'

Measurable 
it will be easy to know when a goal has been achieved

Achievable 
setting unachievable goals is likely to result in feelings of demotivation 

Realistic 
although a goal is achievable its necessary to have the time and resources to complete it

Time 
Personal exercise programmes run for six weeks so are time-bound  

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METHODS OF TRAINING

1. Interval 
exercise with rest inbetween 

2. Continuous 
exercise without a rest period

3. Fartlek  
similar to interval training because it includes a combination of fast and slow running but takes place over different terrain and can include hills 

4. Circuit 
involves a number of exercises arranged to avoid exercising the same muscle groups consecutively

5. Weight  
uses progressive resistance -actual weight lifted or repetitions

6. Cross Training mixture of training to reduce stresses on the body from one method of training

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ANALYSING TRAINING SESSIONS

Heart rate: 
the number of times the heart beats each minute 

Resting heat rate: 
the heart rate at rest 

Measuring heart rate: 
can be done by checking the radial pulse -most accurate way is to wear a heart rate monitor 

Working heart rate: 
is the measurement of the heart rate during or immediately after exercise 

Maximum heart rate (MHR): 
220 - age = maximum heart rate (BPM) 

Target heart rate or target zone: 
the range within which an individual needs to work aerobic training to take place (60-80% of maximum heart rate)

Recovery rate: 
how long it takes for a person's heart rate to return to its resting level  

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MACRO NUTRIENTS

Carbohydrates: carbo loading 
provides energy 

- pasta
- bananas
- potatoes
- bread and rice

Fats: 
provides energy and with glycogen helps muscles to work

- butter/ margarine
- cooking oils

Protein: 
help builds muscles and repair damage tissue

 
- meat/ poultry/ fish
- milk/ eggs
- cheese
- yoghurt
- pulses (beans, peas, lentils)  

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MICRO NUTRIENTS

Minerals:
are essential for a healthy body 

- calcium (milk, cheese, cereals)
- iron (many foods however meat is absorbed easily

Vitamins:
essential to health and they are necessary for good vision, good skin, healing, bones and teeth 

- VA (milk, cheese, yolk)
- VB (grains, nuts, meat)
- VC (fruit and vegetables)
- VD (milk, fish, liver, eggs)
- VE (vegetable oil, break, cereal)

Fibre
adds bulk to food and helps with the digestive system 

- wholegrain cereal / bread
- oats
- fruits and vegetables

Water is essential to control temperature and is found in everything.

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DIFFERENT BODY TYPES

Endomorphs: 
are often grouped in sports that depend on power
individuals with wide hips and narrow shoulders, characterised by fatness
eg - sumo wrestling

 Mesomorphs: 
tend to be involved with sports which require strength and sudden bursts of energy
individuals with wide shoulders and narrow hips, characterised by muscle
eg - sprinter

Ectomorphs: 
individuals with narrow shoulders and narrow hips, characterised by thiness
eg - long distance runner  

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OPTIMUM WEIGHT

Optimum weight: 
best weight or desirable weight -the best weight a player performs at 

Factors affecting optimum weight: 

- height

- gender

- bone structure

- muscle girth

- genetics  

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WEIGHT-RELATED CONDITIONS

Anorexic: 
pertaining to anorexia - a prolonged eating disorder due to the loss of appetite

Obese:
a term used to describe people who are very overfat 

Overfat:
having body fat in excess of normal 

Overweight:
having weight in excess of normal (not harmful unless accompanied by overfatness) 

Underweight: 
weighing less than is normal, healthy or injured 
 

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PERFORMANCE-ENCHANCING DRUGS

Anabolic steroids: (sprinters) 
drugs that mimic the male sex hormone testosterone and promote bone and muscle growth 
- increased risk of heart attacks/strokes
- high blood pressure

- infertility in woman 

Beta blockers: (snooker, archery) 
drugs that are used to control the heart rate and have a calming and relaxing effect  
- nausea and diarrhoea
- tiredness
- depression 

Diuretics: 
drugs that elevate the rate of urine production 
- dehydration
- long-term effects such as kidney problems  

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PERFORMANCE-ENCHANCING DRUGS

Narcotics/analgesics 
drugs that can be used to reduce pain 
- loss of concentration
- loss of balance/coordination
- emotional effects including hallucinations (morphine) 

Stimulants  
drugs that can have an effect on the central nervous system, such as increased mental and/or physical alertness
- high blood pressure
- irritability
- insomnia
- irregular heart beat/ increased heart rate
- addiction - some stimulants such as amphetamines, are highly addictive

Peptide hormones, including erythopoietin 
drugs that cause other hormones to be produces 
EPO increased the production of red blood cells, increases aerobic capacity  -increases the risk of a heart attack or stroke because EPO thickens the blood, which makes it much more difficult for blood to pass through the small capillaries

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RECREATIONAL DRUGS

Alcohol
- affects coordination, speech and judgement
- slows your reactions
- makes muscles tired more quickly
- eventually damages your liver, kidneys, heart, muscles, brains and the digestive and immune system

Smoking
- causes nose, throat and chest irritations
- makes you short of breath
- causes changes to your cardiovascular and respiratory system, which increases the risk of developing heart disease, lung cancer and other diseases 

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RISK ASSESSMENT AND PREVENTING INJURIES

Minimising risks: 

- Warming up/cooling down 
(warming up muscles/disperse lactic acid) 

- Checking equipment and facilities
(check facilities are safe and secure and that any equipment is in good condition) 

- Protective equipment and clothing
(remove jewellery/many activities have specific equipment built into the rules eg football and shin-pads/ hockey goalkeepers wear more protective gear than the rest of the team due to the risk of being hit by a hard ball at a high speed is much greater/footwear -very important and most sports require specialist shoes or boots) 

- Balanced Competition
(weight categories/mixed or single sex/age/handicap system) 

- Playing to the rules of competition 

- Physical readiness 
(PAR-Q physical activity readiness questionnaire highlights any potential problems)

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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM DURING EXERCISE

What is the cardiovascular system?
consists of the heart, blood and the blood vessels 

Heart: 
it's a muscular pump, which pushes blood throughout the many blood vessels in the body

Blood:
is pushed around the body by the heart and has two main functions 

1. to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients

2. to remove waste products such as carbon dioxide

Blood vessels: 
run throughout the body allow the blood to travel everywhere  

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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM DURING EXERCISE

What happens to the cardiovascular system during exercise? 

Increased heart rate:
exercise makes the body work harder, as a result muscles require more oxygen (carried by the blood) therefore the heart has to work harder to pump blood around the body. This means that the heart rate increases. 

Heart rate (pulse rate): 
the number of times the heart beats per minute  

(*)Adrenaline: this is a hormone which brings about a change in heart rate and is the main cause of changes in heart rate/blood pressure. it makes the heart beat faster and causes glycogen to be released by the liver and blood to be diverted away from the organs (liver, kidney, and brain) to the muscles, which need to work harder during exercise. 

Blood pressure: (BP is the force exerted by the heart as it pumps blood out of the heart and into the arteries (systolic high pressure) and it is low when it relaxes between beats (diastolic) 
increases during exercise because more blood is pumped around the body, increasing pressure on the blood vessels

Blood pressure: 
the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels  

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THE EFFECT OF REGULAR EXERCISE ON CARDIOVASCULAR S

- Decreased resting heart rate
(the heart can supply the same amount of blood with fewer beats because the heart gets bigger and stronger) 

- Heart recovery rate the speed at which the heart returns to normal 
(the faster the recovery rate -the fitter the person)

- Increased stroke volume the volume of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle during one contraction 
(stroke volume increases, both at rest and at work because the heart becomes more efficient and stronger as a result of training) 

- Cardiac output the amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute
(cardiac output = stroke volume (SV) X heart rate (HR) 

- Blood pressure
(regular exercise reduces blood pressure as it can help with weight loss, which can reduce blood pressure)  

- Healthy veins and arteries
(fitness increases the number of capillaries within the heart muscle. It also helps to make blood vessels more flexible and efficient, and so to stay clear.  

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THE EFFECT OF LIFESTYLE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYST

Rest: the period of time allotted to recovery 
( rest allows the heart to grow in size and thickness and the number of capillaries to increase)

Factors that may have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system and increase the risk of coronary heart disease: 

1. high cholesterol, perhaps due to a diet high in animal fats
(cholesterol is a fatty substance carried in the blood by lipoproteins, which come in two forms: 1. HDL 'good cholesterol because it carries cholesterol away from the arteries to the liver, which removes it from the body. 2. LDL 'bad cholesterol'  is the major cause of cholesterol in the blood and can lead to a build-up of plaque which can restrict blood flow in the arteries -therefore making the heart work harder. 

Cholesterol: cholesterol is a blood fat which the body needs in moderate amounts 

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THE EFFECT OF LIFESTYLE ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYST

2. recreational drugs
- cigarettes (nicotine, a drug), raise blood pressure due to the release of adrenaline as it causes the heart to beat faster
- tobacco smoke, lowers HDL cholesterol and increases the tendency for blood to clot which can lead to heart attacks/strokes 
- alcohol is thought to increase HDL (long term helps lower blood pressure) but too much alcohol can have serious adverse affects

 3. sedentary lifestyle and lack of exercise (hypo-kinetic disease)
(Inactivity means that the cardiovascular systemm does not receive the benefits of exercise. Sedentary living is also believed to be one of the main reasons for increasing rates of obesity.
Hypo-kinetic disease: a disease related to too little activity (hypo means under or too little: kinetic means energy or activity) 

4. stress  
(negative stress builds up over time and can affect the cardiovascular system by leading to an increase in blood pressure and elevated heart rate. It may also lead to depression and mood swings

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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Oxygen debt: 
the amount of oxygen consumed during recovery above that which would have ordinarily been consumed in the same time at rest (this results in a shortfall in the oxygen available) 

These two measurements help to estimate the efficiency of the respiratory system...

TIDAL VOLUME:

is the amount of air inspired and expired with each normal breath at rest or during exercise  

VITAL CAPACITY:

is the greatest amount of air that can be made to pass into and out of the lungs by the most forceful inspiration and expiration. Normally this is about 4 to 5 litres. 

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IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON THE RESPIRATORY S

Breathing quickens and deepens:
Breathing is greatly effected by exercise. However fast the heart beats it can't carry enough oxygen if not enough is reaching the lungs. The efficiency of breathing depends on how much oxygen can be removed from the air. The most important structures in oxygen uptake are the alveoli. 

Oxygen debt: the extra oxygen consumed during recovery from a period of strenuous physical activity, compared with the amount which would usually have been consumed over the same length of time at rest
Oxygen used during anaerobic exercise often results in oxygen debt and is repaid through deep gasping breaths at the end of the activity. These enable as much oxygen as possible to be taken into the respiratory system, while eliminating as much as possible of the waste produced, mainly in the form of carbon dioxide. 

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LONG TERM BENEFITS OF EXERCISE

Improved efficiency of the lungs: after a sustained period of regular exercise the improved efficiency of the lungs will allow better delivery of oxygen to the working muscles. 

Carbon dioxide removed more quickly: carbon dioxide is removed more efficiently therefore the body can cope with a greater increase in the production of carbon dioxide during exercise.

Increased vital capacity: the whole system, including the lungs, becomes more efficient 

More alveoli: more alveoli become available for gaseous exchange after regular exercise, which means more oxygen can be absorbed by the capillaries and more carbon dioxide taken from them. 

Aerobic capacity increased

Increased number of blood vessels: the increase in capillaries around the alveoli means more oxygen can get into the blood and through the muscles.

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THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

1. deltoid: gives the rounded shape to the shoulder 

2. trapezius: attached to the head and neck at the top, and the shoulder below 

3. lattisimus dorsi: broad sheet of muscle which extends from the lower region of the spine to the humerous  

4. pectoral muscle: covers the chest

5. abdominal muscles: these hold the stomach in 

6. biceps: found at the front of the upper arm 

7. triceps: found at the back of the upper arm 

8. gluteal muscles: form the buttocks

9. quadriceps: found at the front of the upper leg

10. hamstrings: founds at the back of the leg (bottom part of pelvis -tibia) 

11. gastrocnemius: calf muscles 

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THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Deltoid: abducts the upper arm from the body (serve in tennis) 

Trapezius: rotates the shoulder blades backwards (rowing) 

Lattisimus dorsi: rotates upper arm at the shoulders (swimming butterfly) 

Pectoral muscle: adduction of arm (swimming front crawl) 

Abdominal muscles: flexion and rotation of trunk (rowing) 

Biceps: flexion of arm at the elbow (bending the arm to throw a cricket ball) 

Triceps: extension of arm at elbow (straightening arm to throw a cricket ball)

Gluteus maximus: extension of upper leg (running and to maintain good posture)

Quadriceps: extension of the leg at the knee (kicking a football) 

Hamstrings: flexion of the leg at the knee (sprinting: when the leg bends)

Gastrocnemius: plantar flexion of the foot (running: pushing onto the toes) 

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MUSCLES AND MOVEMENT

- Muscles are attached to the bones of the skeletons by tendons. When muscles fibres contract, or pull against the skeleton, movement takes place. Muscles can't push

- Most voluntary muscles are long and thin, but when they contract they get shorter and thicker

- When a muscle is contracted it pulls on a bone, often producing movement in one direction at a joint. A second muscle that pulls the bone the other way allows the bone to move in the opposite direction - Muscles are arranged in antagonistic pairs, so when one muscle contracts and pulls the other relaxes to allow the joint to work. 

1. Cardiac Muscle: 
 - only found in the heart - contract and relax continuously - work without conscious effort 

2. Involuntary Muscle:
- around organs like the intestines - work without conscious effort
 

3. Voluntary Muscles
attached to the skeleton - under your control

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EXERCISING THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Immediate effects of exercise on the muscular system: 

- exercise increases the demand for oxygen and glycogen as the muscles need more fuel to function

- extra waste products are created when muscles work harder than normal, and extra blood needs to be pumped around the body to remove these waste products

- it is possible to continue exercising aerobically for a long time as long as the intensity isn't too hight, but when the demand for oxygen is so high that not enough can be provided to the muscles

- when not enough oxygen is supplied lactic acid begins to build up until eventually its not possible to continue (lactic acid makes muscles ache and can cause cramp)  

- increased fuel demands  

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THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Isometric contractions:
muscle contraction which results in increased tension but the length does not alter, for example when pressing against a stationary object 
(the muscle stays the same length, so nothing moves) 

eg- plank position, isometric contractions are not used during sport as much as isotonic contractions, but they are used on occasion, for example in a rugby scrum
 

Isotonic contraction:
muscle contraction that results in limb movement 
(the muscle changes length, so moves) 

eg- walking/running, most weight and circuit training exercises use isotonic contractions

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LONG TERM EFFECTS

Hypertrophy: scientific term for an increase in the size of muscle 

- training using the principle of progressive overload applies stress to the skeletal muscles
- this results in them being damaged and the tiny muscle fibres are pulled apart causing trauma, when the human body rebuilds the bridges between the muscle fibres (a complicated process which may take up to 48 hours)  makes itself slightly stronger. one reason why rest and recovery is so important 
- muscle hypertrophy is what we call the increase in muscle mass

- leads to an increase in strength

- improved muscular endurance and strength - with increased strength comes increased power (strength x speed) 

- produces a firmer looking body, better posture, and stronger tendons (which join muscles to bones, and ligaments (which join bones to bones) -the bones also increase in strength

- lowers the risk of injury 

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POTENTIAL INJURIES TO THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

- When stopping strength training it results in loss of muscle mass and strength. This is known as muscle atrophy, and can be a problem for sportspeople when they are injured. 

- The most common injuries to muscles include tears, pulls and strains. These terms often describe similar types of injuries: where the small muscle fibres may be torn from their attachment to a tendon. 
- During intense competition the muscle fibres contract and relax very quickly, and this can cause the connective tissue and the blood vessels which  run inside them to be torn.  

Warm-up
Warming up before any exercise session or competition is crucial to minimise the potential for injury 

Cool-down
The aim of cooling down after any activity is to bring the heart rate gradually back to normal and to disperse any lactic acid from the muscles so that they do not become stiff and sore.  

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MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Rest:
rest allows muscles to repair the damage caused by exercise, rebuild before the next session and strengthen. 

Diet: 
Proper nutrition is another important part of the recovery process. Energy stores need to be replenished soon after exercise, with carbohydrates and fluids (energy drinks and water). For the muscular system to recover it is essential to have adequate amounts of protein in the diet, as it helps muscles to be repaired and rebuilt, preventing atrophy. 

Performance enhancing drugs: 
Some athletes also use supplements, such as protein pills. But this is not necessary if the athlete eats a proper balanced diet. 
Some sports people use the banned substances such as anabolic steroids -which are used to build muscle in both size and strength quickly and also speed up the recovery process after training. Giving them an unfair advantage and also they can seriously damage your heath.

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THE FUNCTION OF THE SKELETON

1. Movement:
Where bones meet they form joints, which act as levers. Tendons attach the bones to muscles, enabling a variety of movements both fine and coarse. 

2. Support:
The skeleton supports the body in a variety of positions - standing up, sitting, lying down. The bones and skeletal system give the body shape. The skeleton acts as a framework from the body and also affects body composition and frame size.

3. Protection: 
Another function of the skeleton is protection. The cranium (skull) protects the brain. The spine, or vertebral column, protects the spinal chord. The ribs which form the chest protect the heart and lungs.  

Connective tissues join muscle and bones: 
1. CARTILAGE:
forms cushions between bones to stop them rubbing
2. LIGAMENTS: like very strong string that holds bones together
3. TENDONS: attach muscles to bones (or other muscles)  

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JOINTS AND MOVEMENT

- A joint is a place where two or more bones meet

- In order to prevent pain through the friction which might be caused by the bones rubbing together, the ends of the bones in a synovial joint are covered with a layer of thick cartilage known as hyaline cartilage 

Movements at joints: 
all joins allow movements but the extent and freedom varies from joint to joint
there are five to learn: flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and rotation 

1. if the angle of the joint is getting smaller then the movement is flexion

2. if the angle at the joint is getting bigger then the movement is extension 

3. if the movement is taking away from the body then the movement is abduction 

4. if the action is adding to the body then the movement is adduction 

5. if the movement is around then the movement is rotation  

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JOINTS

Hinge joints: 
the joint can go backwards and forwards but not side-to-side
-this allows flexion and extension 

- The elbow joint: 
The elbow is a hinge joint. It allows the arm to bend (flex) or straighten (extend) 
eg - bending the arm when eating or when doing curls in the weights room 

- The knee joint: 
The tibia (shin bone) is hinged on the femur (thigh bone) so that the leg can be bent (flexed) or straightened (extended) 
eg - squats or seated leg presses or perhaps the sergeant jump 

Ball and socket joints: 
the joint can move in all directions and it can rotate as well 
- so this allows flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and rotation.

The shoulder and hip joints:
-These are called ball and socket joints because the head of the long bone is shaped like a ball, and fits into a socket the shape of a cup. 

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EXERCISE AND THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

Long term effects of exercise on the skeletal system: 

- Exercise can increase bone density: 
1. the denser your bones, the stronger they are
2. exercise usually puts stress or forces through bones, and will cause the body to strengthen those bones
3. the stronger your bones, the less likely they are to break or fracture

- Exercise makes your ligaments and tendons stronger:
1. having stronger ligaments and tendons means you're less likely to injure yourself eg dislocation
2. increases joint flexibility and allows more power in movement 

- Weight-bearing exercise can help prevent osteoporosis 
Osteoporosis is a disease where your bone density is so low that your bones become fragile and fracture easily. You can help prevent osteoporosis by regularly doing weight bearing exercise. Exercises such as walking, tennis, running and aerobics are good as they put weight and pressure on certain bones, increasing their strength. Swimming is not weight-bearing as your body is supported by the water.

 

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INJURIES TO BONES

Bones: 
1. a fracture is a break in a bone. They're usually accompanied by bruising or swelling
2. this is because a fracture also damages the blood vessels in or around the bone
3. they'll also cause a lot of pain because of the damaged nerves inside the bone

Simple fracture: take place in one line, with no displacement of the bone 
- common at the wrist joint and can occur for example when running relays and using the walls to turn in the sports hall 

Greenstick fractures: tends to happen in young children or in soft bone that bends and partly breaks because they are less likely to break completely. 

Closed fractures: the skin over the break is not damaged 

Compound fractures: the skin is torn and the bone pokes out. these are generally more serious, as there is a risk of infection. 

Stress fractures: often referred to as overuse injuries and is a small crack in the bone. Its caused by continuous stress over a long period of time. Most stress fractures happen in bones like the lower leg (weight-bearing). Can be caused by wearing ill-fitting or poor quality shoes, or playing on hard surfaces.  

47 of 52

INJURIES TO JOINTS

Joints are where two or more bones meet. 

Tennis and golfer's elbow: continuous stress on parts of the body over a long period of time can cause all sorts of problems 
1. the main sympton is pain on the outside (tennis) of the elbow and on the inside (golf) of the elbow
2. long distance runners can develop a nasty bone injury called shin splints
3. more at risk of this type of injury if you train too hard or don't rest enough

Dislocations: where a bone at a joint if forced out of its normal position from sudden stress. dislocations are very painful 

Sprains: is a damaged ligament which has been stretched or torn, usually because of violent twisting. common in an ankle or knee, from invasion games such as hockey or rugby. 

Strains: is a tear in a muscle -caused by sudden over stretching 

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THE -RICE- TREATMENT

REST - stop immediately and rest the injury -if you carry on, you'll make it worse

ICE - apply ice to the injury. this makes the blood vessels contract to reduce internal bleeding or swelling 

COMPRESSION - bandaging the injury will also help reduce swelling. but don't make it too tight that you stop the blood circulating altogether 

ELEVATION - support the limb at a raised level (ie above the heart). the flow of blood reduces because it has to flow against gravity 

The RICE method is a good treatment for joint and muscle injuries like sprains or strains. it reduces pain, swelling and bruising 

Diet and the skeletal system: 
-
eating a balanced calcium-rich diet helps the bones to grow and increase in density, eg milk, cheese and yoghurt -but in the low fat varieties. 
- vitamin D is essential to the growth and maintenance of healthy bones
- smoking and too much alcohol have a toxic effect on bones  

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CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Short term/immediate: 

- increased heart rate

- increased stroke volume

- increased cardiac output

- increased blood pressure

Long term: 

- decreased resting heart rate

- bigger, stronger, more efficient heart

- increased stroke volume

- lower resting blood pressure

- healthy veins and arteries

- faster recovery rate  

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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Short term/immediate:

- breathe quicker 

- breathe deeper

- start to build up an oxygen debt (working anaerobically) 

Long term:

- increased lung volume

- stronger intercostal muscles 

- increased strength of tendons 

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MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL SYSTEM

Muscular short term/immediate:

- increased fuel demands

- build up of lactic acid

Muscular long term: 

- increased size (hypertrophy) 

- increased strength of muscles

- increased strength of tendons 

Skeletal long term: 

- increased bone density 

- increased strength of tendons

- increased strength of ligaments  

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Comments

Nicole Chelmis

AWESOME NOTES.

OMG U SAVED ME !!

Thanks for sharing, if you take history check my resources out!

Phoebe Bowell

i dont think these are very good :/

Rachel Watkins

I'm not even half way through but I'm finding this useful! I can't find much stuff on p.e so thanks :)

Samantha Taylor

These have helped me loads. Thank you

Star Pupils Tuition

Some things get cut off.

Bethany H

Lovely notes. I have printed and will use these to help me revise.

Good to see that you had info on sporting organisiations and participation, unlike many others :)

Chloe smith

You lyk sAved meh lyfff.... tanks hunneh dees are dead good:]

Jon

think you may of just got me a gcse!

panna

Thanks so much, this was very useful. If you or anyone else need anything with PE then I have some stuff on it. Check out my resources. Thanks a lot :)

panna

Thanks so much, this was very useful. If you or anyone else need anything with PE then I have some stuff on it. Check out my resources. Thanks a lot :)

Former Member

omg thankyouuu

Kas

Thanks so much

Mo Ezzedin

Cheerss. gonna be useful for my exam tomorrow

beefyg

Thank you so much for this! it is great as a reminder of what you need to know :)

Cobi Ford

Quality<3

Jlen90

THANK YOU SO MUCH!!

Lois_<3

some of the things get cut off at the bottom, but other than that these are good notes. thanks :)

Jessica Savage

brilliant notes :) wish i had seen them earlier :)

aliimz

thnk u sooo much :) 

alia

omg u sved ma lyf.... ur a god send.... tkenk u sooo much..... honestly.... uve saved my lyf

mia

Thanks, really useful ;)

mariam

you saved me, thank you!

Leah

Lol, have you heard the MP3 voice? :D

Real good job - high five!

Leah

Lol, have you heard the MP3 voice? :D

Real good job - high five!

Omar Hijazi

really good

Omar Hijazi

really good

Omar Hijazi

really good thanks

Omar Hijazi

really good thanks

Omar Hijazi

Absolutely shocking. I'd like to thank you from the heart of my bottom

Emma

I wouldn't really call physical challenge a physical benefit of exercise. More a mental one?

Emma

I wouldn't really call physical challenge a physical benefit of exercise. More a mental one?

Ben Dixon

I love you :)

aisha

excellent notes. Thank you

charlotte griffiths

THIS HAS SAVED MY LIFE. I lost my pe folder and ive replaced all the notes with these. Thankyou so much alot of help:) x

tavers


thanks;)

 

Emily

Great, but a few spelling mistakes

natalie higham


How do I print them of when they have open up into a document in my windows 8 laptop?

Ben Elwood

These are soo helpful thanks!!!

Carol Jess

So useful! Thank you :-)

saaaamd

AH Hannah you're a ******* legend.

coach76

great thanks

Daisy Stuart

really good notes just a shame i didnt see them sooner. thanks 

Louis2804

Lovely notes ya nerd

jaskaur2607

Thank you so much. These notes are really helpful!

berries54321

these are wonderful !! Great job 

Hxneul._.Chan

Will be VERY USEFUL for tomorrow's Edexcel PE mock exam and probably am gonna get that A/A* :D thanks a lot, mate

Abby_P

Wow thank you for these very in depth revision cards! You have helped a lot! :D

herahanum11

THANK YOU

13Watsit13

I loved these notes... do you have anything to do with SMART principles for goal setting??

danielnolan

soo good thank you so much even tho you wont see my comment 

Darth Sidious

this is the sith lord

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