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Pe Revision
The Skeleton
*there are over 200 bones in our body;




Functions;
Protection - the cranium and ribs protect the brain and vital organs in the chest.
Shape - gives shape to the body and makes you tall or short.
Support - holds your vital organs in place when…

Page 2

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Joints
*where two or more bones meet

Fixed or immovable joints (fibrous joint) - allow for a tiny amount of movement, connected by
fibrous connective tissue, E.g. Skull.

Slightly movable joints (cartilaginous joint) ­ allows some movement, joined together by cartilage,
E.g. cartilage discs between vertebrae.

Freely movable/ Synovial Joints…

Page 3

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Extension- straightening limbs at a joint
Rotation- a circular movement


The bone
Ossification
-the formation of a bone from cartilage, that starts in the embryo.
1) Periosteum grows around cartilage
2) Bone cells appear in the diaphysis
3) Cartilage starts to turn into bone
4) Bone cells appear at both…

Page 4

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Long- creates movement and affects height (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, phalanges,
metacarpals and metatarsals)
Short ­ allows you to spread your weight (carpals and tarsals)
Flat- protects organs (scapula, sternum, ribs, clavicle and cranium)
Irregular- provides shape/protection or has a special function (vertebrae, mandible and patella)


Muscles
Cardiac…

Page 5

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Gastrocnemius Pointing the toes, help to flex the knee Running
Latissimus dorsi Adduct and extend the arm at the shoulder Butterfly stroke in swimming
Abdominals Flex the trunk across the stomach Pulling the body down when
hurdling
Muscular Fitness- how your muscles react to exercise
Muscular Strength- the amount of…

Page 6

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Veins: Pulmonary Vein: Takes oxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs
Vena Cava: Takes de-oxygenated blood to the heart from the body
Chambers: Atria: Upper part of heart- collects blood
Ventricles: Lower part of heart- pumps blood
Valves: Bicuspid Valve: Left side of heart (prevents backflow of oxygenated blood)…

Page 7

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-made in the yellow bone marrow (marrow cavity)

Red blood cells;
-carries oxygen through lungs
-the oxygen combines with the haemoglobin in these cells to form oxyhaemoglobin
-made in the red bone marrow (spongy bone)

Plasma;
-the liquid that carries everything, for example; red/white blood cells, platelets, glucose, amino acids…

Page 8

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Breathing
When you inhale:
*the intercostals muscles contract, expanding the ribcage
*the diaphragm contracts, pulling downwards to increase the volume of the chest
*pressure inside the chest is lowered and air is sucked into the lungs


When you exhale:
*the intercostals muscles relax, the ribcage drops inwards and downwards
*the…

Page 9

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VO2 max- the maximum amount of oxygen your body uses in a minute
Recovery Rate- the time it takes for the pulse rate to return to normal after exercise
Oxygen Debt- the results of a short fall of oxygen when exercising




Health and Fitness

Why do sport?
Mental benefits include:…

Page 10

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*Muscular endurance is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired.
Allows sportspeople to keep going for longer.
*Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint.
Allows sportspeople to stretch and reach further
*Body composition is the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle…

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