The whole of what you need to know in GCSE PE (EDEXCEL)

The whole course in detail.

For the edexcel syllabus.

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Pe Revision
The Skeleton
*there are over 200 bones in our body;
Functions;
Protection - the cranium and ribs protect the brain and vital organs in the chest.
Shape - gives shape to the body and makes you tall or short.
Support - holds your vital organs in place when playing sport. The vertebral column holds the body
upright.
Movement - muscles are attached to bones, which are jointed. When the muscles contract the bones
move.
Blood production - red blood cells (to carry oxygen) and white blood cells (to protect against
infection) are produced in the bone marrow of some bones.
The Vertebral Column
Cool CERVICAL (7) ­ smallest vertebrae, supports the head.
Things THORAIC (12) ­ allows bending to occur. Protects and is attached to ribs.
Love LUMBAR (5) ­ largest vertebrae, provides even more flexibility with bending.
Spinal SACRUM (5) ­is fused, makes a strong base. Transmits force from legs to upper body.
Columns COCYX (4) ­ is also fused, no special use.
*ATLAS & AXIS vertebrae are also above the cervical section, allows head to nod and rotate.
*Cartilage discs are between the vertebrae to act as shock absorbers.

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Joints
*where two or more bones meet
Fixed or immovable joints (fibrous joint) - allow for a tiny amount of movement, connected by
fibrous connective tissue, E.g. Skull.
Slightly movable joints (cartilaginous joint) ­ allows some movement, joined together by cartilage,
E.g. cartilage discs between vertebrae.
Freely movable/ Synovial Joints - allows a lot of movement!
Cartilage reduces friction between bones and acts as a shock absorber.
Synovial fluid lubricates the joint so it is more freely moveable.
Synovial membrane produces the synovial fluid.…read more

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Extension- straightening limbs at a joint
Rotation- a circular movement
The bone
Ossification
-the formation of a bone from cartilage, that starts in the embryo.…read more

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Long- creates movement and affects height (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, phalanges,
metacarpals and metatarsals)
Short ­ allows you to spread your weight (carpals and tarsals)
Flat- protects organs (scapula, sternum, ribs, clavicle and cranium)
Irregular- provides shape/protection or has a special function (vertebrae, mandible and patella)
Muscles
Cardiac Muscle- unique to heart, contracts automatically at regular intervals
Involuntary/Smooth Muscle- work automatically, can't control, consist of stomach, intestines etc
Voluntary/Skeletal Muscle- made of long fibres, attached to the skeleton, can be controlled, allow
us…read more

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Gastrocnemius Pointing the toes, help to flex the knee Running
Latissimus dorsi Adduct and extend the arm at the shoulder Butterfly stroke in swimming
Abdominals Flex the trunk across the stomach Pulling the body down when
hurdling
Muscular Fitness- how your muscles react to exercise
Muscular Strength- the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance
Muscular Endurance- the ability to contract voluntary muscles many times without getting tired
Muscular Girth- the size or circumference of a muscle
Fast-twitch muscle fibre- contract quickly,…read more

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Veins: Pulmonary Vein: Takes oxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs
Vena Cava: Takes de-oxygenated blood to the heart from the body
Chambers: Atria: Upper part of heart- collects blood
Ventricles: Lower part of heart- pumps blood
Valves: Bicuspid Valve: Left side of heart (prevents backflow of oxygenated blood)
Tricuspid Valve: Right side of heart (prevents backflow of de-oxygenated blood)
Aorta Cells Vena Cava Heart Pulmonary Artery Lungs Pulmonary Vein Heart
The two atria collect the blood.…read more

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Red blood cells;
-carries oxygen through lungs
-the oxygen combines with the haemoglobin in these cells to form oxyhaemoglobin
-made in the red bone marrow (spongy bone)
Plasma;
-the liquid that carries everything, for example; red/white blood cells, platelets, glucose, amino acids
-is 55% of blood
Platelets;
-Clump together to form clots
-Protect the body by stopping bleeding
Respiratory System
Nasal Cavity: Air is moistened, warmed and filtered through to the larynx
Larynx: Produces sound
Trachea: Carries air towards lungs
Bronchi: The trachea splits into…read more

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Breathing
When you inhale:
*the intercostals muscles contract, expanding the ribcage
*the diaphragm contracts, pulling downwards to increase the volume of the chest
*pressure inside the chest is lowered and air is sucked into the lungs
When you exhale:
*the intercostals muscles relax, the ribcage drops inwards and downwards
*the diaphragm relaxes, moving back upwards, decreasing the volume of the chest
*pressure inside the chest increases and air is forced out
Gas Exchange
-occurs in alveoli between oxygen and carbon dioxide
-
defined as the…read more

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VO2 max- the maximum amount of oxygen your body uses in a minute
Recovery Rate- the time it takes for the pulse rate to return to normal after exercise
Oxygen Debt- the results of a short fall of oxygen when exercising
Health and Fitness
Why do sport?
Mental benefits include:
-improved confidence
-relief of stress/tension
Physical benefits include:
-losing weight
-improved posture
-improved body shape
Social benefits include:
-meeting people
-making friends
And you will develop personal qualities:
-Co-operation (working with others)
-Competition (testing yourself…read more

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Muscular endurance is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired.
Allows sportspeople to keep going for longer.
*Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint.
Allows sportspeople to stretch and reach further
*Body composition is the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone.
Allows sportspeople to be put into certain categories.
Skill-related (specific to sport
*Agility is the ability to change the position of the body quickly and with control.…read more

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