Glossary of key words for edexcel GCSE physical education

Glossary of key words for GCSE physical education

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  • Created by: Hayley
  • Created on: 21-05-10 17:48
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AbductionMoving limb or bone away from body
AdductionMoving limb or bone towards body
Aerobic`with oxygen'when exercise is moderate and steady,the heart can supply all
the oxygen to the working muscles
Aestetic Qualityhow good an action looks
Agilitythe ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the
movement of the whole body
Alveolitiny air sacks of the lungs was gaseous exchange takes place
Anaerobic`without oxygen'when exercise is short,fast bursts,the heart cannot
supply blood and oxygen to the muscles as fast as the cells can use them,so energy
is released without oxygen presant
AnagonistA muscle whose action counteracts that of another muscle
Aortathe main artery of the body ,blood vessel transporting oxygenated blood to the
body tissues
Arteriolesblood vessels that are subdivisions of arteries,leading into capilleries
Asymmetric barsa piece of olympic gymnastics equipment used by females with
bars at different heights
Atrophydecline in effectivness,when muscles atrophy they weaken and lose their
strength and size

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Balancethe ability to retain the centre of mass(gravity)of the body above the base of
support with reference to static (stanionary) or dynamic Changing)conditions of
movement,shape and orientation
Balenced competitiongrouping based on size,age or experience for an even match
Balanced dietDaily intake of food containing right amounts and types of nutriants
Basal metabolic rate the level at which energy is used without exercise
Blood dopingmethod of increasing the oxygen carrying capcity of the blood,by
increasing haemoglobin levels and red blood cell count
Body compositionthe proportion of…read more

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Classificationa way of sorting or organising groups
Coccyxsmall fused triangular bone at the base of the vertebral column
Compact bonestrong,hard bone
Compound/open fracturebreak of the bone that pierces skin,causing a risk of
Concussioninjury to the brain,caused by a blow to the head,may cause the person
temporarily to lose consciousness
Continuous trainingaerobic excercising ,at a moderate to high level,with no rests
lasting longer for a sustained period of time
Convasalesceneperiod of time when body is rested to aid recovery
Cool downexcercises after the main activity…read more

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Ectomorphbody type with little fat or muscle and a narrow shape
Elementa part that contributes to the whole
Emergancy proceduresseries of actions to be in a crisis
Endomorphbody type that is apple or pear shaped ,with a large amount of fat
Endotheliuminternal space of the blood vessels
Endurancethe ability to keep working over a period of time without tiring or losing
Energy drinksfluids containing carbohydrates
Epiphysisend of a long bone
Etiquettea code of polite behaviour
Excerisea form of phyisical activity done primarily to improve…read more

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FITTfrequancy.…read more

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Insertationthe piont where a tendon attaches a muscle to bone where is movement
Inspirationthe drawing in of breathing,inhalation
Interval trainingmixing periods of hard exercise with rest periods
Involuntry musclesmuscles that work automatically,controlled by the involuntry
nervous system
Irregular bonesbones that have no uniform shape
Isometric muscular contractionmuscle contraction with no movement,there is
increased tension but the length of the muscles does not alter,e.g.…read more

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Moderationbalancing training and not over training
Modified gamea game with adapted rules,equipment and playing area based on a
full game
Movementin motion,could be an action like running or swinging a racket at a ball
Muscle definitionmuscle shape
Muscle tonemuscles in a state of very slight tension,ready and waiting to be used
Muscular endurancethe abiltity to use voluntary muscles,over long periods of time
without getting tired
Muscular strengththe amount of force a muscle can exert against restitance in one
Nauseafeeling of sickness
Newtona unit of…read more

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Oxygen debtthe amount of oxygen consumedin the same time rest (this results in a
shortfall in the oxygen available)
Performancehow well a task is completed
Perfomanceenhancing drugssubstances that artificially improve personal
characteristics and performance
Periosteal collaralso known as periosteum,membrane surrounding the shaft of a
Personal exercise programmetraining designed specifically for one individual
Posturethe way the muscles hold the body when still or in motion
Powerthe ability to complete strength performance quicklypower=strength x speed
Prime movercontracting muscles that cause movement
Principles of trainingideas behind effects…read more

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Ricerest,ice,compression elevationin order of treatment for a minor injury
Rotationmovement in a circular or partcircular fashion
Sacrumbones of the vertebrae,refused in adults,making part of the pelvic girdle
Septumwall of muscle dividing the right and left sides of the heart,septurn can also
mean a dividing wall between two cavities elsewhere in the body
Shaftlong,thin part of a bone
Shapeform or outline
Short bonesmaller bone found in the hands and feet
Simple/closed fracturebreak of the bone when the skin is not broken
Skeletonthe arrangement of the 206…read more

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Synovial membranelining inside joint capsule where synovial fluid is produced
Systematic trainingplanning a programme for an individual as a result of the effect
of pervious training
Systematic circuitpart of the circulatory system concered with transporting
oxygenated blood from the heart to the body and deoxygenated blood back to the
heart again
Target zonelevel of effort applied,often keeping within aerobic levels but depending
on specified training intensity
Tendonstrong,nonelastic tissue attaching bone to muscle
Thoracic vertebraebones of the vertbrae in chest area
Throwing cagea safety net around…read more



thanks! this is really helpful! my exam is tomorrow so this will really help!

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