GCSE PE Edexcel Anatomy revision

This is basically only the anatomy side of the GCSE PE Edexcel course. This includes fulls notes on topics such as the impact of Exercise on the body, both long term and short term. The importance of the skeleton system and muscle movement etc. These are the main topics that are aimed at students who are wanting to achieve a 'b' grade and above. 

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  • Created by: Farah
  • Created on: 10-04-12 16:50
Preview of GCSE PE Edexcel Anatomy revision

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PE topics
The process of respiration involves two major processes: inspiration and expiration.
During inspiration, the inspiratory muscles contract, the diaphragm descends,
and the rib cage rises.
During expiration, the inspiratory muscles relax, the diaphragm rises, and the rib
cage descends.
The cardiovascular system
Immediate effects when first exercising:
Heart contracts more often ­ increased heart rate.
Heart contracts more powerfully ­ increased stroke volume, which is the volume of
blood pumped from heart with each beat.
Blood diverted to muscles, eg it is diverted from the digestive system to the muscles.
Blood temperature rises.
Blood vessels near skin open to allow heat to be lost.
Effects of regular training:
Heart muscle increases in size and strength.
Cardiac output increases. Cardiac means relating to the heart so this is the amount of
blood that the heart pumps out to the body.
Lower resting heart rate, quicker recovery from exercise.
Reduced risk of heart disease.
Increased number of capillaries in muscles.
Increased volume of blood and red blood cells.
The bones, joints and muscles
Immediate effects when first exercising:
Muscles contract more often
Blood flow to muscles increases
Muscle temperature rises
Little effect on bones and joints
Effects of regular training:
Muscles increase in size (hypertrophy)
Muscular endurance improves
Muscles, tendons and ligaments around joints get stronger
Joints become more stable and flexibility at joints increases
Bone width and density increase
The respiratory system

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Immediate effects when first exercising:
Increased rate of breathing
Increased depth of breathing ­ rise in tidal volume
Effects of regular training:
Increased strength of diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
Greater number of alveoli.
Increased ability of the lungs to extract oxygen from the air.
Increased vital capacity.
Increased amount of oxygen delivered to, and carbon dioxide removed from, the
Explain what is meant by athlete's foot and verrucae and describe how to
recognise and prevent and treat them.…read more

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The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood (blood not containing oxygen) to
the lungs to pick up oxygen. The left side of the heart pumps the oxygenated blood from
the lungs around the rest of the body.
1. Deoxygenated blood from the body enters the right atrium.
2. Right atrium contracts to pump blood through triscupid valve into right ventricle
3. Right ventricle contracts, semi lunar valve opens and deoxygenate blood travels
back to the lungs.
4.…read more

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Red blood cells
Contain haemoglobin which carries oxygen
Made in the bone marrow. The more you train the more red blood cells are made.…read more

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You also need to understand the five functions of the skeleton. These are:
1. Protection - the cranium and ribs protect the brain and vital organs in the chest.
2. Shape - gives shape to the body and makes you tall or short.
3. Support - holds your vital organs in place when playing sport. The vertebral column
holds the body upright.
4. Movement - muscle are attached to bones, which are jointed. When the muscles
contract the bones move.
5.…read more

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The vertebral column can be divided into five sections.…read more

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Limb movements
Movement Description
Abduction Movement away from the mid-line of the body
Adduction Movement towards the mid-line of the body
Extension Straightening limbs at a joint
Flexion Bending the limbs at a joint.…read more

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The key voluntary muscles used in sport are shown in the illustration.…read more



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