GCSE PE Edexcel Anatomy revision

This is basically only the anatomy side of the GCSE PE Edexcel course. This includes fulls notes on topics such as the impact of Exercise on the body, both long term and short term. The importance of the skeleton system and muscle movement etc. These are the main topics that are aimed at students who are wanting to achieve a 'b' grade and above. 

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  • Created by: Farah
  • Created on: 10-04-12 16:50
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PE topics

The process of respiration involves two major processes: inspiration and expiration.

During inspiration, the inspiratory muscles contract, the diaphragm descends,
and the rib cage rises.
During expiration, the inspiratory muscles relax, the diaphragm rises, and the rib
cage descends.

The cardiovascular system

Immediate effects when first exercising:

Page 2

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Immediate effects when first exercising:
Increased rate of breathing
Increased depth of breathing ­ rise in tidal volume
Effects of regular training:
Increased strength of diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
Greater number of alveoli.
Increased ability of the lungs to extract oxygen from the air.
Increased vital capacity.
Increased amount of…

Page 3

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The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood (blood not containing oxygen) to
the lungs to pick up oxygen. The left side of the heart pumps the oxygenated blood from
the lungs around the rest of the body.

1. Deoxygenated blood from the body enters the right atrium.

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Red blood cells
Contain haemoglobin which carries oxygen
Made in the bone marrow. The more you train the more red blood cells are made.

White blood cells
An important part of the immune system, they produce antibodies and destroy harmful
Made in the bone marrow

Clump together to…

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You also need to understand the five functions of the skeleton. These are:

1. Protection - the cranium and ribs protect the brain and vital organs in the chest.
2. Shape - gives shape to the body and makes you tall or short.
3. Support - holds your vital organs…

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The vertebral column can be divided into five sections. Each has a role in sport:
smallest vertebrae
support the head and neck
top vertebra (atlas) allows head to nod
second vertebra (axis) allows head to rotate

ribs are attached to the thoracic vertebrae, making a protective cage

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Limb movements

Movement Description

Abduction Movement away from the mid-line of the body

Adduction Movement towards the mid-line of the body

Extension Straightening limbs at a joint

Flexion Bending the limbs at a joint.

Rotation A circular movement around a fixed point

There are 4 types of bone:

Type of…

Page 8

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The key voluntary muscles used in sport are shown in the illustration.

Name of muscle Function Example in sport

Triceps Extend the arm at the elbow Pressup, throwing a javelin

Biceps Flex the arm at the elbow Pullup, drawing a bow in archery

Deltoids Move the arm in all directions…




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