GCSE AQA P.E Factors affecting participation

Social and cultural factors affecting the participation of sport. Includes sponsorship, media, amateur v.s professional and political/financial issues affecting sport.

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Sponsorship and Sport

Sponsors can sponsor a competition, the stadium or the team itself (e.g. Heineken Cup, Emirate's Stadium, UK Athletics team sponsored by Norwich Union).

The Sponsors:

Pros: Increased publicity, status and more sales of products. Cons: Negative events may tarnish reputation of company.

The performer:

Pros: Free clothing and equipment, payment, don't have to worry about financing training. Cons: Could be tied into a contract involving public appearances at sponsors' events.


Pros: Financial support. Cons: Sponsor may have some control over dates/times/clothing.

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Sport and the Media

Forms of media:

  • TV
  • Radio
  • Books
  • Newspapers/magazines
  • Internet

Pros of media coverage:

  • Attendances may rise (people want to see their heroes)
  • Supporters are better informed
  • Easier to gain sponsors
  • Encourages participation
  • Develops sports 'personalities'
  • Gives viewers a close up of the action.


  • Attendances may drop (people can watch at home)
  • Variety of exposure for different sports (some get lots, some get none)
  • Less privacy for sports personalities
  • Events are sensationalised to promote media, rather than the sport.
  • Changes to event timings, the season and the rules 
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Role Models and Behaviour

Examples of conduct in sport.

Golf: own up if they break the rules, which may lead to disqualification.

Cricket: opposing fans sit peacefully together, no police presence or video surveillance is needed.

Football: opposing fans are segregated due to violent clashes in the past. High police presence and video surveillance is needed.

Rugby union: players are not allowed to argue with the referee. Etiquette demands opposing players to clap eachother at the end of a match, and all disagreement is left on the pitch.

Football: players often crowd the referee to argue with his decision. Fights often happen after the game has finished.

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Amateur VS Professional


  • Participate for pure enjoyment
  • Participation is more important than the result
  • Train in their leisure time
  • Playing is a choice
  • They have a job


  • Participate for the money
  • Winning is the most important thing, because they earn more if they win.
  • Train full-time
  • Have to play if told to
  • The sport is their job
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Local and National Sports Providers

Public sector funded facilities: paid for by the government out of taxes and National Lottery funding.

  • Available for anybody.
  • Cheap
  • Include leisure centres, swimming pools and outdoor pitches
  • Schools share facilities for ECAs

Private sector funded facilities: owned by private companies to make a profit.

  • Members only
  • More expensive
  • Have a wider range of facilities, with more sophisticated equipment
  • Schools have to pay to use the facilities for ECAs.
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