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Cultural & social factors


·         Leisure – time left over once your duties have been carried out, your bodily needs have been seen to, how we send spare time

·         Work – 9hrs

·         Body needs – eating, sleeping etc 8hrs

·         Duties – 2 hrs

Leisure time has increased due to:

·         Less time working, earlier retirement, technological advantage, change in working hrs, living longer

Social groups/ user/target groups

Gender: being male or female

Ethnicity: a group of people with a national or cultural tradition

Racism: prejudge & discrimination directed at members of different ethnic groups

Stereotyping: the holding of narrow or prejudice views about groups of people in society

Peer pressure: where the peer group will attempt to persuade an individual to follow their lead


·         Facilities, accessibility, clubs

Problems face:

·         Women – time commitments, stereotyping, role model

·         Disability – awareness, access, adaption, attitudes

·         Income, family background, type of employment

Factors effecting participation:

·         Location – inner-city/countryside

·         Weather – unfavourable climate

·         Cost - disabled

Fairness in sport:

·         Etiquette – abiding by the unwritten rules of a sport

·         Should – show respect, sportsmanship



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Social factors

Media: a form of mass communication

Listed events: those which must be shown on normal channels free of charge

Roles of the media

·         Inform – public on news & events

·         Educate – public on different sports, benefits, minority sports

·         Entertain – bring people together in social manner

·         Advertisement- - sponsorship, benefits of healthy lifestyle

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International factors

Makes it high profile-

·         Elite competition, popularity of sport, media attention

Why do we have international sport-

·         Higher level of competition

·         Opportunity to travel

·         Brings people together

·         Inspire a generation

·         Creates an home advantage

History of Olympic games-

·         1936, Berlin. Hitler walked out of stadium when black Jessie owns won 4 gold’s – political

·         1968, Mexico. Tommie Smith &John Carlos did black power salute to highlight problems of discrimination – political against civil rights

·         1972, Munich. Palestinian terrorists took 9 athletes hostage. 2 hostages killed. Wanted release of Palestinians in Israel – political

·         1978, Montreal, Canada. 22 black African teams staged boycott saying NZ should be expelled for playing Africa at rugby – political, apartheid

·         1980, Moscow. US boycotted games in protest of Russia’s invasion in Afghanistan, other countries followed – political

·         1984, los Angeles – Soviet union boycotted games in revenge as US boycotted their games – political

·         1980 – first commercialised games – huge profit – big change

Advantages of hosting games-

·         Inspire a generation

·         Unities country – pride, increased revenue, proves country of minority groups

·         Tourism – money

·         World class facilities

·         Legacy

·         Increase in job opportunities

Disadvantages of hosting games-

·         Terrorism

·         Problems reflect badly on country

·         Short term jobs

·         Huge cost

·         Strain on country

Types of competition-

·         Ladder – lower person challenges upper person. You win you take their place. ADV: simple to run & administer. DIS: takes a long time, limited people

·         League – most common, all teams play each other in a season. ADV: caters for large no.s, can be organised in advance, everyone has same number of games. DIS: can be difficult to move leagues   

·         Knockout – winner of each round goes through. ADV: quick, east to organise. DIS: fewer games, may need to qualify

·         Combination – ADV: more games for all, can be catered to suit all numbers. DIS: can take long time, may result in meaningless games

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Aerobic exercise: exercise carried out using oxygen

Aerobic threshold: 60-80% MHR

Anaerobic threshold: 80-90% MHR

SPORT: specificity, progression, overload, reversibility, tedium

Specifity: tailored to suit our needs/sport

Progression: gradually increasing the intensity of training to continually make improvements, as we adapt

Overload: to improve our fitness or ability by working at a level more difficult than we are used to. Increase-frequency, intensity, time (fit)

FIT: frequency, intensity, time -  type-basis for planning a fitness programme

Reversibility: loss of improvement if training is decreased or stopped

Tedium: boredom, if you are bored you lose motivation

Training threshold: the minimum heart rate to be achieved to ensure fitness improvements

Training zone: the range of HR within which specific training effect will take place

Progression: where training is increased gradually as the body adjusts to the increased demands being made on it

Plateauing: where progress seems to halt within a training programme & it take some time to move to the next level

MHR: 220-age

Lactic acid: a mild poison & waste product of anaerobic respiration


Circuit training: performing a series of exercises or activity’s in a special order or sequence

Fartlek: speed play, a method of training which we vary pace & training conditions

Interval training; using alternating periods of very hard exercise & rest to improve fitness

Recovery rates: length of time for cardio respiratory system to return to normal after activity

Reps: the number of time you actually more the weights

Sets: the number of times you carry out a particular weight activity

Weight training: using either free weights or weights in machines as a form of resistance training


Warm up

·         Prevent injury

·         Physiological

·         Performance improvement

·         (How) pulse raiser, stretches/mobility, simple skills

Fitness phase

·         Be Specific – concentrate on one or more aspects of fitness

·         Overload current level of fitness

·         Use variety of fitness

Skill phase

·         Individual skills, unit skills, team skills

Cool down

·         low intensity

·         static stretching

·         (why) removes lactic acid, removal of other waste products, prevent muscle stiffness, aid recovery


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fatigue, stress and motivation

Aggression: behaviour that is intended to harm

Arousal: the intensity of our motivation

Direct aggression: involves physical contact

Indirect aggression: aggression aimed at the opponent through the ball etc

Extrovert: sociable, outgoing, loud, lively, confident

Introvert: calm, quiet, shy

Motivation: determination to achieve certain goals

Personality: our character and temperament

Physical & mental demands affecting performance

Fatigue – a feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness

Stress – the body’s reaction to change

Personality – our character & temperament

Introvert, extrovert

People are motivated by different things:

·         Achievement, money, personal goals, satisfaction of a good performance

Anxiety in spot:

·         Associated with feeling – nervous, worry, apparition, tension

·         Optimum level – adrenaline is produced, high level of performance can be achieved

·         Above optimum – deterioration of performance levels

·         How to control – deep, slow breathing, relaxing, focus oj the important


·         Includes: verbal, physical

·         Direct – physical contact, contact sports, within rules

·         Indirect – aimed at opponent through ball etc, no physical contact, aggression channeld (assertive)


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Gaseous exchange: transfer of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the blood


·         Release energy from food

·         Get oxygen into the blood stream

·         Take carbon dioxide from blood stream back into atmosphere


·         Walls thin and moist

·         Surrounded by cappileries that have thin walls


·         Glucose = energy + CO2 + lactoc acid + H20

·         Glucose tuned into glycogen in muscles

·         Lactic acid produces muscke fatigue


·         Glucose + )2 = energy + C02 + water

·         C6H1206 + 6O2 = energy + 6CO2 + 6H2O

·         Energy supply long

·         No fatigue

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Circulatory system

Aerobic zone: the range of your heart rate where you are breathing aerobically

Aorta: the main artery leaving the heart

Artery: a blood vessel that carries blood away from the hear

Capillaries: microscopic blood vessels that surround muscles and organs

Cardiac Output: the amount of blood leaving the heart per minutes (HRXS=CO)

Blood Pressure: the pressure of the blood against artery walls

Cardiovascular system: heart and blood vessels that circulate blood & transport oxygen

Cardiovascular endurance: the ability of heart & lungs to keep supplying oxygen to the blood stream to provide energy

Haemoglobin: gives blood red colour helps carry oxygen   

Heart rate: number of times heart beats per minute

MHR: 220-age

Pulse: indication of our heart rate

Red blood cells: carry oxygen

Stroke Volume: amount of blood pumped out your heart per beat

Training zone: range of heart rate within specific training will take place

Veins: carry deoxygenated blood to the heart

Vena Cava: 2 main veins returning blood to heart

Valves: prevent backflow of blood

White blood cells: fight of infection



-          nutrients to our calls for cell respire

-          oxygen from the lungs to tissues carried in red blood cells

-          waste products – C02 & lactic acid

-          hormones eg adrenaline


-          the blood absorbs body hear

-          direct blood flow to the lungs & surface to escape


-          carries platelets (allow blood to clot if any injuries occur)

-          contains plasma to help regulate the body’s fluid content & to help transport the dissolved material

-          white blood cells to fight infection


PLASMA - regulates the body’s fluid content & helps transport dissolved material

RED BLOOD CELLS – haemoglobin combines with oxygen & carries it around the body

PLATELTS – allow blood to clot

WHITE BLOOD CELLS – fight disease

Improve cardiovascular endurance by:

-          work heart & lungs for at least 15mins

-          your pulse needs to be within the aerobic target zone (60-80%)

-          you need to build up gradually





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