GCSE PE

Pe revision cards, primarily focusing on food groups, performancing enchancing drugs, influences on participation and body systems (with focus on the muscular system and the actions certain muscle groups produce)

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What Action Does the Deltoid produce? ...and examp

-Adducts the upper arm from the body

-Serve in tennis

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What Action Does the trapezius produce? ...and exa

-Rotates the shoulder backwards

-Rowing

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What Action Does the Latissimus Dorsi produce? ...

-Rotates upper arm at the shoulders

-Swimming Butterfly

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What Action Does the pectorals produce? ...and exa

-Adduction of arm

-Swimming Front Crawl

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What Action Does the abdominals produce? ...and ex

-Flexion and rotation of the trunk

-Rowing

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What Action Does the Biceps produce? ...and exampl

-Flexion of the arm at the elbow

-Bending the arm to throw a cricket ball

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What Action Does the triceps produce? ...and examp

-Extension of arm at the elbow

-Straightening the arm to throw a cricket ball

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What Action Does the gluteus maximus produce? ...a

-Extension of the upper leg

-Running and for maintaining good posture

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What Action Does the quadriceps produce? ...and ex

-Extension of the leg at the knee

-Kicking a football

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What Action Does the hamstrings produce? ...and ex

-Flexion of the leg at the knee

-Sprinting (when leg bends)

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What Action Does the gastrocnemius produce? ...and

-Plantar flexion of the foot

-Running (pushing onto toes)

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Immediate Effects Of Exercise on the Muscular Syst

-Increases the body's demand for oxygen and glycogen (muscles need more fuel to function)

-Extra Waste Products Are Produced (eg. lactic acid)

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Define ISOMETRIC muscle contraction!

-Muscle contraction which results in increased tension but the length does not alter

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Define ISOTONIC muscle contraction?

-Muscle contraction that results in limb movement

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Long Term Effects to MUSCULAR SYSTEM of particpati

-Muscular Hypertrophy

-Increased Muscular Endurance

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Soft Tissue Injuries - strain & sprain

-you STRAIN a MUSCLE

....and SPRAIN a JOINT :)

(eg. twisted ankle = sprain)

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When would a performer experience reversibilty?

-During time taken off sport due to illness/time taken off training

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Why is CARBOHYDRATE a better energy source than FA

-Carbohydrates release energy quicker

-Their energy can be used in both aerobic and anaerobic activity

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Physical benefits of taking part in physical activ

-Contributes to good physical health

-physical challenge

-Increase fitness

-improve performance

- improve cv fitness

-improve muscular strength/endurance

-improve flexibility

-improve body composition

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SOCIAL benefits of taking part in physical activit

-Mix wih others

-make new friends

-meet current friends

-develop teamwork/cooperation

-work with others

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MENTAL benefits of physical activity

-relieve/prevent stress and tension

-mental challenge

-increase self-esteem and confidence

-help the individual feel good

-contribute to the enjoyment of life

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INFLUENCES ON TAKING PART

-people

-Image

-cultural factors

-Resources

-Health & well-being

-Socio-economic

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SPORT ENGLAND: Start, Stay, Succeed

-START: increase participation in sport in order to improve the health of the nation, with a focus on priority groups.

-STAY: retain people in sport through an effective network of clubs, sports facilities, coaches, volunteers and competitive opportunities.

-SUCCEED: create opportunities for talented young performers to achieve success.

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SPORTS PARTCICPATION PYRAMID

-Elite: this is where inidividuals reach sporting excellence. pyramid narrows as fewer people take part in this level. Governing bodies of sport are responsible for development at this level.

-Performance: during this stage young people start to concentrate on specific skills & develop talent in specific sports. Quality coaching is an essential part of player development at this level.

-Participation: this stage is where young people begin to participate reguarly in a specific activity for enjoyment. Sports club become important at this stage as they make the link to the next stage of development.

-Foundation: base of the pyramind. learning/experiencing basic sporting skills (multi sports sessions, primary PE lessons)

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DEFINE EXERCISE.

-A form of physical activity which maintains or improves health and/or physical fitness

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7 Principles of training :)

-Individual needs

-Specificity

-progressive overload

-rest

-recovery

-FITT

-reversibility

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3 MACRONUTRIENTS?

-Carbohydrates

-Fats

-Protein

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4 MICRO NUTRIENTS

-Vitamins

-Minerals

-Fibre

-Water

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weight loss as a result of physical activity is ac

-Working harder than you normally do

-Using more calories than taken in

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FACTORS AFFECTING OPTIMUM WIEGHT

-Height

-Gender

-Bone Structure

-Muscle Girth

-Genetics

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6 performance enhancing drugs

-anabolic steroids

-beta blockers

-diuretics

-narcotic analgesics

-stimulants

-peptide hormones (eg. EPO)

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Side effects of anabolic steroids

-high blood pressure

-liver disease

-increased risk of heart attacks and strokes

-infertility in women

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What do anabolic steroids do?

-mimic the male hormone testosterone and promote bone an muscle growth

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What do beta blockers do?

-control the heart rate and have a calming and relaxing effect

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Side effects of beta blockers?

-nausea and diarrhoea

-tiredness

-depression

-insomnia and nightmares

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what do DIURETICS do?

-elevate the rate of urine production

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Side effect of diuretics??

-dehyrdation (which can cause dizziness,nausea, headaches and muscle cramps)

-long term effects such as kidney problems

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What do narcotic analgesics do?

-reduce pain, allowing a performer to continue to participate despite having an injury

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Side effects of NARCOTIC ANALGESICS?

-loss of concentration

-loss of balance

-loss of coordination

-emotional effects (eg. hallucinations)

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what do STIMULANTS do?

-effect the central nervous system (CNS), for example, increased mental and/or physical alertness

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Side effects of STIMULANTS

-insomnia

-irritability

-irregular heart beat

-increased heart rate

-high blood pressure

-addiction

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What do PEPTIDE HORMONES do?

-cause other hormones to be released

-(EPO) increase the number of red blood cells, and therefore the amount of haemoglobin) allowing the body to carry extra oxygen (increased aerobic capacity) and quickly disperse waste products & lactic acid - making it ideal for long distance events.

-(HGH) increase muscle development

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Side effects of ERYTHOPOIETIN (EPO)

-thickens the blood making it difficult for blood to pass through the small capillaries and thus increases the risk of heart attack or stroke

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Ways to Balance Competition.

-weight categories

-age categories

-mixed or single gender

-handicap system

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what is SYSTOLIC and DIASTOLIC blood pressure?

-SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE: maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts and pushes blood through the aorta and into the body. Rises during activity as more blood is required by the body.

-DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE: pressure of the blood during the relaxation phase between heart beats (when the heart is at rest). It depends mainly on the elasticity of the arteries and quality of the vessels.

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what is PULSE PRESSURE?

-the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure

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Immediate effect of exercise on the body

-breathing becomes faster and deeper

-body temperature increases

-sweating starts (so body requires fluids)

-muscles begin to ache

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Effects of REGULAR exercise on the CARDIOVASCULAR

-decreased resting heart rate

-increased heart recovery rate

-increased stroke volume

-reduced blood pressure

-more capillaries within the heart muscle

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Factors that have a negative effect on the cardiov

-high cholesterol (which is caused by a diet high in animal fats)

-recreational drugs

-sedentary lifestyle and lack of exercise (hypokinetic disease)

-stress

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Immediate & short-term effects of physical activit

-breathing quickens and deepens

-oxygen debt (the extra oxygen consumed after anaerobic activity to make up for the short fall)

 

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Comments

panna

Really helpful thanks! :)

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