Health, Fitness and a Healthy Lifestyle
Health - A state of complete mental, physical and social well being and not merely the absence of disease.
Fitness - The ability to meet the demands of the environment and everyday life and still have energy left spare.
Exercise - An activity requiring physical effort that helps you sustain or improve your fitness and health.
Health + Exercise = Fitness
What happens if you don't exercise?
Low aerobic capacity
Immediate Effects of Exercise
Breathing rate increases
Reddening of the skin
Tiredness (heaviness) of muscles
Heart rate increases
Body Temperature increases
Long Term Benefits of Exercise
Relieves stress and tension
Helps you sleep better
Reduces the risk of dying by 50%
Tones up your body
Improves levels of strength
Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise
Aerobic exercise - When you complete an exercise over a prolonged period of time and you use oxygen to pump to your working muscles.
The heart and lungs work to supply the muscles with oxygen. (e.g. Netball match)
Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Carbon Dioxide (+ Water)
Aerobic Threshold: 60 - 85%
Anaerobic Exercise - When you complete an action with the absence of oxygen.
A short sharp burst of energy used to complete the action without oxygen. (e.g throwing a shot-putt)
Glucose = Energy + Lactic Acid
Anaerobic Threshold: 85 - 100%
Components of Fitness
Flexibility: the ability to move joints to their full range of movements.
Stamina: the muscles ability to move weight over a long period of time without tiring.
Power: the ability to apply a combination of speed and strength in an action.
Speed: the fastest rate which you can complete an action or cover a distance.
Co-ordination: is the ability to combine two or more body parts at the same time.
Timing: the ability to judge the time and place of an object and execute a response.
Balance: the ability to keep the body stable in a position whilst keeping the centre of gravity at the base.
Reaction time: the time it takes to respond to a stimulus.
Agility: the ability to change direction quickly and stay in control of your body.
Bones in the Skeleton
Cranium = Skull Ribs = Chest
Clavicle = Collar bone Patella = Knee
Humerus = Top of arm (to the funny bone) Metacarpals = (in) Fingers
Radius = Forearm (top) Metatarsals = (in) Feet
Ulna = Forearm (underneath) Vertebrae = Spine
Pelvis = Hips
Femur = Top of the leg
Tibia = Shin bone
Fibula = Bottom of the leg at the back
Functions of the Skeleton
There are 5 functions of the Skeleton:
- Blood Cell Production
There are 4 basic types of bones in your body:
- Flat Bones (e.g. Cranium, Pelvis)
- Irregular Bones (e.g. Vertebrae)
- Long Bones (e.g. Femur, Radius)
- Short Bones (e.g. Metatarsals, Patella)
"A joint is where 2 or more bones meet and muscles act together to cause movement"
Fixed or Immovable Joints
- These cannot move, they overlap and interlock.
- Held together by tough fibre
- E.g. The Cranium
Slightly Movable Joints
- These only move a little.
- Held together by ligaments and have protective pads called cartlidge.
- (e.g The Ribs)
Freely Movable Joints
- They are also known as synovial joints.
- (e.g Hips, Shoulder, Knee)
2 Types of Synovial Joints:
- Ball and Socket Joint
- Hinge Joint
Abduction: Movement away from the mid-line of the body.
Adduction: Movement towards the mid-line of the body.
Flexion: Decreasing the angle at the joint. (Bending the arm at the elbow)
Extension: Increasing the angle at a joint. (Extending the arm at the elbow)
Deltoids = Shoulders
Pectorals = Chest
Bicep = Arm (top)
Tricep = Arm (bottom)
Abdominals = Stomach
Quadriceps = Top of leg (front)
Hamstring = Top of leg (back)
Gastrocnemius = Calf
Trapezius = Top of back
Latimus Dorsi = Sides
Gluteals = Bottom
Antagonist Muscle: The muscle which is relaxing and letting the movement happen
Agaonist Muscle: The muscle which is contracting creating the movement
Age affects your body:
- Arteries become less elastic, less blood flow
- Development of low twitch muscles, slower reaction time
- Muscles get smaller, strength is lost
- Body fat builds up as a result of less exercise and the same amount of food
- Body becomes less flexible
Sports have been adapted for the disabled for example:
- Played with a volleyball not a rugby ball
- You have 15 seconds to get over the line to score a try
- 4 players on each team
- The ball has a bell in it so the players can hear where it is
- Coaches bang the net so that the players know where the net is
- They all wear blindfolds so partially sighted people aren't advantaged.
Gender separated sports: Netball, Rugby, Football
Mixed Gender sports: Tennis, Show Jumping, Cheer-leading, Dance
Differences between men and women
Women have a lower oxygen carrying capacity
They have different hormones
They have different body shapes and sizes
The have less muscle
Men have less maturity
- Narrow shoulders and hips
- Very thin legs and arms
- Very little muscle or fat
- e.g A Jockey
- Broad shoulders and narrow hips
- Muscular Body with strong forearms, shoulders and thighs
- e.g A Rugby Player
- Wide hips and narrow shoulders
- A lot of fat but slim ankles and wrists
- e.g. A Sumo-Wrestler, Weight Lifter
Principles of Training
Specificity - The specific effect each type of training has on the body (Weight)
Progression - Gradually increasing exercise to improve fitness
Overload - Making the body work harder than normal so that it adapts to demands
Reversibilty - When you stop exercising your fitness is lost and you start lower level
Tedium - Boredom within a training session or game situation
Overload - Frequency
Methods of Training
Exercising the body at a moderate rate, keeping the pulse at a constant rate above the training threshold (60 - 80%)
"Speed Play" Exercising varying the speed, intensity, time and distance. Best on various terrain.
Building up the muscles using free weights or machine weights, doing various sets and reps.
Performing a series of exercises or activities to improve aerobic/anaerobic fitness and performance.
Internal and External Injuries
Overuse injuries: Stress fracture, Muscle/Tendon injury
Sudden injuries: Stretching/Twisting, Cramp/Stitch, Pulling muscles
Impact injuries: Hit in a game (e.g. Hockey stick)
Foul Play injuries: High tackle in rugby
Equipment injuries: e.g. Too tight shoes
Accidental injuries: Falling over a bench, running into a wall
Carbohydrates: Main sources of energy. Simple = Chocolate, Sweets
Complex = Bread, Pasta
Fats: Major source of energy 3 types usually found in dairy and meat
Proteins: Growth and repair of tissue Animal product and plant food
Vitamins: Helps maintain good health Fruit and the Sun
Minerals: Only needed in small amounts Vegetables and Meats
Water: Lack of water leads to dehydration. VITAL FOR SPORTS
Fibre/Roughage: Aids the digestive system Bread, Cereal
Glucose is changed to Glycogen for energy.
Leisure and Recreation
- Uses Physical/Mental/Social energy
- High impact or Low impact activity (Walking, Yoga, Chess)
- Does not exert any physical energy
- Going to the cinema, watching TV, Video Games
Leisure Services: Swimming Pools, Sports Centres, Gyms, Library
More leisure time because of:
- Less working hours
- More unemployment
- Technological Advances
- Part Time and Shift Work
Physical Education and Sport Strategies for Young People
"5 hour offer" 2hours of P.E and 3 Hours Extra Curricular
Aimed at 14-19 year olds
Gifted and Talented
Leadership and Volunteering
Physical Education School Sport and Club Links
Increase the % of children who take part in sport
Aimed at primary school aged 5-14
School Sports Partnerships
Step into Sport
Gifted and Talented
PE and Sport Investigation
P.E in School
Why is P.E offered in school's?
- To beat child obesity
- To introduce children to new sports
- To allow children to do not do after school activities to do exercise
Foundation Subject: P.E, Drama, Psychology
Core Subject: Maths, English, Science
Sports that extend beyond traditional sports e.g. Snowboarding, Canoeing.
National Healthy Schools Programme
Young people will be able to make informed health and life choices in order to reach their full potential and through this create healthier, happier children.
FIFA WORLD CUP
Started in 1930 and happens every 4 years.
Most widely watched sporting event in the world
RUGBY WORLD CUP
First held in 1987 held every 4 years, 2011 in New Zealand
ICC CRICKET WORLD CUP
First started in 1975 held every 4 years (5 day test matches)
First held in 1950, most popular television programme for sports.
Held every other weekend when in season.
High Profile Events
No organised World Champs for Tennis. Existent since 1877.
SUPER BOWL - AMERICAN FOOTBALL
Most watched US Television Sport, has a large audience world wide.
UEFA CHAMPIONS LEAGUE
Premiership and Champions League football popular and attracts large audiences
ENGAGE SUPER LEAGUE
Rugby League in the UK.
- The complex where the Olympic athletes where staying was high-jacked by terrorists, with their leader 'ISA'
- 'ISA' agrees to give the government more time to get together what they wanted, as they had 11 Israel hostages.
- Police dressed as athletes and scaled the building armed, but was then told to retreat.
- A wife of one of the killed athletes goes into the room where they were kept hostage and decided the world had to know. Meanwhile the terrorists had moved to an airport where the police where going to invade.
- There was gunfire after 30 minutes at the airport and the terrorists were killed, the athletes were announced safe until a bomb went off in the helicopter and killed all the athletes.
Highest Profile sporting event in the World.
First held in 776BC in Olympia, Greece.
Held every 4 years.
Held in London, England in 2012.
- More tourists
- More money income
- More local jobs
- Good advertising for country
- Could cause controversy - terrorist attacks
Sponsorship is where a company pay money to a team or individual in return for good publicity. Companies sponsor:
- Leagues - "Engage" Super League, "Barclays" Premier League
- Facilities - "DW" Stadium, "Emirates" Stadium, "Reebok" Stadium
- Teams - Liverpool FC (Standard Chartered) Wigan Warriors (Applicado FS)
- Events - Olympic Games (McDonalds) Wimbledon (Robinsons)
- Individuals - David Beckham (Adidas) Lewis Hamilton(Santander)
More publicity for their business
More people will want to engage in their business
Products are sold with their logo on
Bad publicity - People might not engage in business because they don't like the team they are sponsoring
Tied in a contract even if player is injured
The Training Season
Continuous, Interval, Fartlek training to develop their stamina so they don't loose fitness.
Develop teamwork, tactics and individual skills. Increasing speed, agility, stamina and set plays.
Enabling complete recovery from the demands of the competition (Injuries)
Newspaper - Up to date details of the sport
Television - Watch live feeding of the game, Sky Sports News
Radio - Listen to commentary on the game
Magazines - Pictures and information about teams and players
Internet - Keep up to date with a specific team
- Entertainment - live programmes and highlights
- Informative - documentaries
- Instructive - coaching series and excerpts
- Educational - schools programmes
Components of Fitness: Strength
Is when the muscle stays the same length. (e.g. Scrum in Rugby)
Is when a burst of maximum effort is used. (e.g. Throwing a Javelin)
Applying force repeatedly over a prolonged period of time. (e.g. Rowing)
Is the ability of combining speed and strength to complete and action.
The Wrong Sponsorship
Alcohol or Cigarettes as this brings the wrong impression and is not associated with Sports. Could affect your reputation.
Seeing a role model in trouble or in a bad situation is the wrong publicity.