AQA GCSE Physical Education

Flash cards containing all the information about the AQA exam, short course GCSE Physical Education. (May 2012)

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  • Created by: Jenny
  • Created on: 22-05-12 19:46

Health, Fitness and a Healthy Lifestyle

Health - A state of complete mental, physical and social well being and not merely the absence of disease. 

Fitness - The ability to meet the demands of the environment and everyday life and still have energy left spare. 

Exercise - An activity requiring physical effort that helps you sustain or improve your fitness and health. 

Health + Exercise = Fitness

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What happens if you don't exercise?

Weight Gain

Breathlessness

Less flexibility

Less strength 

Low aerobic capacity

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Immediate Effects of Exercise

Breathing rate increases

Reddening of the skin

Tiredness (heaviness) of muscles

Heart rate increases 

Body Temperature increases 

Sweating 

Fatigue

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Long Term Benefits of Exercise

Relieves stress and tension 

Helps you sleep better

Reduces the risk of dying by 50%

Tones up your body

Improves posture 

Improves stamina 

Improves levels of strength

Improves felixibility

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Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise

Aerobic exercise - When you complete an exercise over  a prolonged period of                                     time and you use oxygen to pump to your working muscles.

The heart and lungs work to supply the muscles with oxygen. (e.g. Netball match) 

Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + Carbon Dioxide (+ Water)

Aerobic Threshold: 60 - 85% 

Anaerobic Exercise - When you complete an action with the absence of oxygen.

A short sharp burst of energy used to complete the action without oxygen. (e.g throwing a shot-putt) 

Glucose = Energy + Lactic Acid

Anaerobic Threshold: 85 - 100%

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Components of Fitness

Flexibility: the ability to move joints to their full range of movements. 

Stamina: the muscles ability to move weight over a long period of time without tiring.

Power: the ability to apply a combination of speed and strength in an action. 

Speed: the fastest rate which you can complete an action or cover a distance.

Co-ordination: is the ability to combine two or more body parts at the same time. 

Timing: the ability to judge the time and place of an object and execute a response. 

Balance: the ability to keep the body stable in a position whilst keeping the centre of gravity at the base. 

Reaction time: the time it takes to respond to a stimulus. 

Agility: the ability to change direction quickly and stay in control of your body. 

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Bones in the Skeleton

Cranium = Skull                                                               Ribs = Chest                

Clavicle = Collar bone                                                     Patella = Knee

Humerus = Top of arm (to the funny bone)                     Metacarpals = (in) Fingers

Radius = Forearm (top)                                                   Metatarsals = (in) Feet

Ulna = Forearm (underneath)                                          Vertebrae = Spine 

Pelvis = Hips 

Femur = Top of the leg 

Tibia = Shin bone 

Fibula = Bottom of the leg at the back 

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Functions of the Skeleton

There are 5 functions of the Skeleton: 

  • Shape 
  • Support 
  • Movement
  • Blood Cell Production 
  • Protection

There are 4 basic types of bones in your body: 

  • Flat Bones (e.g. Cranium, Pelvis) 
  • Irregular Bones (e.g. Vertebrae) 
  • Long Bones (e.g. Femur, Radius) 
  • Short Bones (e.g. Metatarsals, Patella) 
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Joints

"A joint is where 2 or more bones meet and muscles act together to cause movement"

Fixed or Immovable Joints

  • These cannot move, they overlap and interlock.
  • Held together by tough fibre 
  • E.g. The Cranium

Slightly Movable Joints

  • These only move a little. 
  • Held together by ligaments and have protective pads called cartlidge.
  • (e.g The Ribs)

Freely Movable Joints

  • They are also known as synovial joints. 
  • (e.g Hips, Shoulder, Knee) 
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Synovial Joints

2 Types of Synovial Joints:

  • Ball and Socket Joint
  • Hinge Joint

Abduction: Movement away from the mid-line of the body. 

Adduction: Movement towards the mid-line of the body.

Flexion: Decreasing the angle at the joint. (Bending the arm at the elbow) 

Extension: Increasing the angle at a joint. (Extending the arm at the elbow)

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Muscles

Deltoids =  Shoulders
Pectorals = Chest
Bicep = Arm (top)
Tricep = Arm (bottom)
Abdominals = Stomach
Quadriceps = Top of leg (front)
Hamstring = Top of leg (back)
Gastrocnemius = Calf
Trapezius = Top of back
Latimus Dorsi = Sides 
Gluteals = Bottom

Antagonist Muscle: The muscle which is relaxing and letting the movement happen
Agaonist Muscle: The muscle which is contracting creating the movement 

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Age

Age affects your body: 

  • Arteries become less elastic, less blood flow
  • Development of low twitch muscles, slower reaction time 
  • Muscles get smaller, strength is lost
  • Body fat builds up as a result of less exercise and the same amount of food
  • Body becomes less flexible 
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Disability

  • Physical 
  • Perminant
  • Mental 
  • Temporary 

Sports have been adapted for the disabled for example: 

Wheelchair Rugby

  • Played with a volleyball not a rugby ball 
  • You have 15 seconds to get over the line to score a try 
  • 4 players on each team 

Blind Football

  • The ball has a bell in it so the players can hear where it is
  • Coaches bang the net so that the players know where the net is
  • They all wear blindfolds so partially sighted people aren't advantaged. 
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Gender

Gender separated sports: Netball, Rugby, Football 
Mixed Gender sports: Tennis, Show Jumping, Cheer-leading, Dance 

Differences between men and women

Women have a lower oxygen carrying capacity

They have different hormones

They have different body shapes and sizes

The have less muscle 

Men have less maturity

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Somatotype

Ectomorph

  • Narrow shoulders and hips
  • Very thin legs and arms 
  • Very little muscle or fat
  • e.g A Jockey 

Mesomorph

  • Broad shoulders and narrow hips 
  • Muscular Body with strong forearms, shoulders and thighs
  • e.g A Rugby Player

Endomorph

  • Wide hips and narrow shoulders
  • A lot of fat but slim ankles and wrists 
  • e.g. A Sumo-Wrestler, Weight Lifter 
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Principles of Training

Specificity - The specific effect each type of training has on the body (Weight)

Progression - Gradually increasing exercise to improve fitness

Overload - Making the body work harder than normal so that it adapts to demands

Reversibilty - When you stop exercising your fitness is lost and you start lower level

Tedium - Boredom within a training session or game situation

Overload - Frequency
                    Intensity
                   Time
                   Type

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Methods of Training

Continuous Training
Exercising the body at a moderate rate, keeping the pulse at a constant rate above the training threshold (60 - 80%)

Fartlek Training
"Speed Play" Exercising varying the speed, intensity, time and distance. Best on various terrain. 

Weight Training 
Building up the muscles using free weights or machine weights, doing various sets and reps. 

Circuit Training
Performing a series of exercises or activities to improve aerobic/anaerobic fitness and performance.  

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Internal and External Injuries

Internal

Overuse injuries: Stress fracture, Muscle/Tendon injury
Sudden injuries: Stretching/Twisting, Cramp/Stitch, Pulling muscles

External 

Impact injuries: Hit in a game (e.g. Hockey stick) 
Foul Play injuries:
High tackle in rugby
Equipment injuries: e.g. Too tight shoes 
Accidental injuries:
Falling over a bench, running into a wall  

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Balanced Diet

Carbohydrates: Main sources of energy. Simple = Chocolate, Sweets
                                                                   Complex = Bread, Pasta 

Fats: Major source of energy 3 types usually found in dairy and meat

Proteins: Growth and repair of tissue Animal product and plant food

Vitamins: Helps maintain good health Fruit and the Sun 

Minerals: Only needed in small amounts Vegetables and Meats

Water: Lack of water leads to dehydration. VITAL FOR SPORTS

Fibre/Roughage: Aids the digestive system Bread, Cereal

Glucose is changed to Glycogen for energy.



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Leisure and Recreation

Active Leisure

  • Uses Physical/Mental/Social energy
  • High impact or Low impact activity (Walking, Yoga, Chess) 

Passive Leisure

  • Does not exert any physical energy
  • Going to the cinema, watching TV, Video Games

Leisure Services: Swimming Pools, Sports Centres, Gyms, Library

More leisure time because of:

  • Less working hours
  • More unemployment
  • Technological Advances
  • Part Time and Shift Work 
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PESSYP

Physical Education and Sport Strategies for Young People

"5 hour offer" 2hours of P.E and 3 Hours Extra Curricular

Aimed at 14-19 year olds

Club Links
Coaching
Competition
Disability
Extending Activities
Gifted and Talented
Infrastructure
Leadership and Volunteering
Swimming 

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PESSCL

Physical Education School Sport and Club Links 

Increase the % of children who take part in sport
Aimed at primary school aged 5-14 

Sports Colleges
School Sports Partnerships
Professional Development
Step into Sport
Club Links
Gifted and Talented
Swimming
PE and Sport Investigation 

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P.E in School

Why is P.E offered in school's?

  • To beat child obesity 
  • To introduce children to new sports
  • To allow children to do not do after school activities to do exercise 

Foundation Subject: P.E, Drama, Psychology
Core Subject: Maths, English, Science 

Extending activities 
Sports that extend beyond traditional sports e.g. Snowboarding, Canoeing. 

National Healthy Schools Programme
Young people will be able to make informed health and life choices in order to reach their full potential and through this create healthier, happier children. 

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International Factors

World Championships

FIFA WORLD CUP
Started in 1930 and happens every 4 years.
Most widely watched sporting event in the world

RUGBY WORLD CUP
First held in 1987 held every 4 years, 2011 in New Zealand

ICC CRICKET WORLD CUP
First started in 1975 held every 4 years (5 day test matches) 

FORMULA 1 
First held in 1950, most popular television programme for sports.
Held every other weekend when in season.  

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High Profile Events

Wimbledon
No organised World Champs for Tennis. Existent since 1877. 

SUPER BOWL - AMERICAN FOOTBALL
Most watched US Television Sport, has a large audience world wide.

UEFA CHAMPIONS LEAGUE
Premiership and Champions League football popular and attracts large audiences

ENGAGE SUPER LEAGUE 
Rugby League in the UK. 

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Munich 1973

  • The complex where the Olympic athletes where staying was high-jacked by terrorists, with their leader 'ISA'
  • 'ISA' agrees to give the government more time to get together what they wanted, as they had 11 Israel hostages.
  • Police dressed as athletes and scaled the building armed, but was then told to retreat. 
  • A wife of one of the killed athletes goes into the room where they were kept hostage and decided the world had to know. Meanwhile the terrorists had moved to an airport where the police where going to invade. 
  • There was gunfire after 30 minutes at the airport and the terrorists were killed, the athletes were announced safe until a bomb went off in the helicopter and killed all the athletes. 

MUNICH 1973

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Olympic Games

Highest Profile sporting event in the World.
First held in 776BC in Olympia, Greece.
Held every 4 years.
Held in London, England in 2012. 

Benefits

  • More tourists 
  • More money income 
  • More local jobs 
  • Good advertising for country 

Disadvantages 

  • Could cause controversy - terrorist attacks
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Sponsorship

Sponsorship is where a company pay money to a team or individual in return for good publicity. Companies sponsor:

  • Leagues - "Engage" Super League, "Barclays" Premier League
  • Facilities - "DW" Stadium, "Emirates" Stadium, "Reebok" Stadium
  • Teams - Liverpool FC (Standard Chartered) Wigan Warriors (Applicado FS)
  • Events - Olympic Games (McDonalds) Wimbledon (Robinsons) 
  • Individuals - David Beckham (Adidas) Lewis Hamilton(Santander)

Advantages
More publicity for their business
More people will want to engage in their business
Products are sold with their logo on 

Disadvantages
Bad publicity - People might not engage in business because they don't like the team they are sponsoring
Tied in a contract even if player is injured

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The Training Season

Out-of-season Training
Continuous, Interval, Fartlek training to develop their stamina so they don't loose fitness.  

Pre-Season Training
Develop teamwork, tactics and individual skills. Increasing speed, agility, stamina and set plays. 

Playing Season
Full competition. 

Closed Season 
Enabling complete recovery from the demands of the competition (Injuries)  

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Media

Newspaper - Up to date details of the sport

Television - Watch live feeding of the game, Sky Sports News

Radio - Listen to commentary on the game

Magazines - Pictures and information about teams and players

Internet - Keep up to date with a specific team

  • Entertainment - live programmes and highlights
  • Informative - documentaries
  • Instructive - coaching series and excerpts
  • Educational - schools programmes
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Components of Fitness: Strength

Static Strength
Is when the muscle stays the same length. (e.g. Scrum in Rugby)

Explosive Strength 
Is when a burst of maximum effort is used. (e.g. Throwing a Javelin) 

Dynamic Strength
Applying force repeatedly over a prolonged period of time. (e.g. Rowing)

Power
Is the ability of combining speed and strength to complete and action. 

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The Wrong Sponsorship

Alcohol or Cigarettes as this brings the wrong impression and is not associated with Sports. Could affect your reputation. 

Seeing a role model in trouble or in a bad situation is the wrong publicity. 

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Comments

Annabel Bailey

Thank you these are so good!

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