GCSE PE AQA

PE AQA GCSE REVISION

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Fitness Elements

Agility - Ability to change direction/body postition quickly and controlled
Strength- The force your muscles exert in a single action
Balance- An even distribution for weight enabking someone/something to remain upright and stead
Stamina- The ablity to sustain prolonged physical or mental effort for a long period of time
Flexibility- The range of movement at a joint
LME- Ability of a group of muscles to work continouisly over a period of time 
R+R- A period of time taking in information, make a decision and do something about it
Power- Move or travel with great speed or force
Speed- Rate of movement
Co-ordination- Brain and muscles working together to create controlled movements 

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Health/Fitness

Health is the state of complete physical, mental and social welleing. 

Factors which contribute to good health are having a balanced diet, regular exercise, social life, friends, support network etc

Fitness is the capacity of all your systems to work at maximum efficiency. The ability to carry out skillful activities without getting too tired.

General Fitness- The level of fitness that everybody needs to carry out everyday tasks efficiently.

Specific Fitness- Ability to perform a particular/specific activity at the best of your ability.

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Exercise

Effects of Exercise: 

Short term-  Sweating, breathing rate deeper and faster, increased heart rate, strong muscles, capillaries dilate

Long term- Improved fitness, adapting to cope with stress, stroke volume goes up, resting heart rate decreases, bradycadia (heart muscles get bigger/stronger)

Benefits of Regular Exercise/Sport

Regular Exercise
Reduces risk of heart disease/stroke, reduces high blood pressure, improves balance of cholestrol, flexes bone joints, makes you feel happier

Sport
Improves confidence, relieves any stress, loses weight, improves posture/body shape, meet new people, make new friends 

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Homeostatis and Oxygen Debt

Homeostatis is the process in which the body keeps things the same, such as body temperature and water levels. Keeping these two the same is not always easy when the outside environment is changing constantly. We need receptors to detect when things such as temperature change. 

Oxygen Debt 
This is when cells don't recieve enough oxygen during exercise. Cells start to respire without it and create lactic acid as a waste product. Debt is breathing in the required about of oxygen needed to break down the lactic acid that built up. After exercising, you're still breathing in heavily which is the body taking in extra oxygen to repay the oxygen debt.

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Body Systems

Circulatory Sysem (Cardovascular System)
The circulatory system consits of two circuits that blood travels through: pulmonary and systemic. Exercise affects these systems, causing the heart to pump blood faster around the body, which in turn allows you to exercise for longer. The three componenents are the heart, blood vessels and the blood. The pulmonary circuit carries blood to the lungs to be oxygenated and then carried back to the heart.

Repiratory System  
The act of breathing is part of the respiratory system,  a complex process where air travels into and out of the lungs.

Aerobic Respiration: Glucose + Oxygen -> Energy + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Anaerobic Repiration: Glucose -> Lactic Acid + Energy

Endomorph- Wide Hips, High % of body fat
Mesomorph- Wide shoulders/narrow hips, High % muscle 
Ectomorph- Narrow hips/Narrow shoulders, Low % body fat 

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Health Related Fitness

Cardiovascular Fitness
This is the ability to exercise your whole body for a long period of time. Your heart and lungs work together to keep your muscles supplied with oxygen. The harder you work your muscles, the more oxygen they need.
Muscular Strength
This is the amount of force that a muscle can apply and is important in sports where you need to push/pull things.
Muscular Endurance
This is ability to repeatedly use your voluntary muscles over along time without getting tired.
Flexibility
This is the amount of movement possible at a joint which depends on the type of jont and strechiness of the muscle around it.
Body Composition
This is the % of fat, muscle and bone. If you're healthy you're made up of around 15-25% body fat.  

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Principles of Training

Specificity - States that training must closely resemble sporting activity for improvement to happen

Progression- The amount of work we do must be increased in a gradual way 

Overload- We must work our body systems harder than normal to improve them

Reversibility- States that any effects of training are not permenant and will be lost if training stops

Tedium- We must vary training methods to prevent boredom 

Moderation- Managing the tasks to avoid injury and preventing failure

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Heart Rate

This is the formula used to select the appropriate heart rate for training:
Resting Heart Rate + %(Maximum Heart Rate - Resting Heart Rate)

Maximum HR = 220-age

Heart Rate Training Zones

Anaerobic Threshold - 85-100%

Target Heart Rate Zone - 65-85%

Fat burning zone- 50-65%

Recovery Zone- 50% or less 

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Methods of Training

Circuit Training
This is performing a series of exercises/activities in a special order. It uses a variety of different exercises that are known as stations with a normal circuit consisting of 10-12 stations. We would use circuit training to improve aerobic/anaerobic fitness, improve sporting performance, construct skills. 

Continuos Training
Consists of working at the same pace for a long time. It has to be moderatly active by working in the aerobic training zone. It can improve stamina and health-related fitness.

Fartlek Training
'Speed Play'. This type of training involves many changes from speed and intensities. Improves stamina, LME, speed etc

Interval Training
This type of training uses alternative periods of hard exercise and rest. It works in the 80-95% of heart rate to improve anaerobic fitness, power, speed and strength. 

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Aggression and Coaching

Aggression
Direct
Controlled Direct
Indirect (against a person)
Indirect (against an object)
No observable aggression

Coaching
Guidance:
Visual
Verbal
Mechanic
Feedback:
Verbal 
Visual
Knowledge 

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Safety and Risks

Risk
Risk is how likely something is to be harmful. The authorities are responsible for: the rules, referees, balancing competition. The players are responsible are responsible for: being fit enough, using correct technique, wearing the right clothing and equipment, checking that the environment is safe, warming up and cooling down, etiquette.

Risk Assesment-> Looking at the possible dangers
Risk Control-> A set of rules you take/follow to make sure it is as safe as possible

Safety
Environment
Equipment
Clothing/Footwear
Personal 

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Lifestyles

Being healthy is more than just having a healthy body. 

Physical Wellbeing - Heart/Kidneys/Rest of the body are working well
Mental Wellbeing- Don't have too much stress/anxiety, not suffering from mental illnesses
Social Wellbeing- You have food/clothing/shelter, friends etc

Influences of your lifestyle:

Cultral
Health/Wellbeing
Image
People
Socio-economic
Resources 

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Healthy Schools Programme

This was introduced as a long term intiative designed to make a significant difference to the health and achievement of children and young people. There are four core themes:

1. Personal, Social and Health Education
Incorporates sex, relationships and drugs and teaches young people of being healthy, staying safe and making a positive contribution and economic wellbeing.

2. Healthy Eating
Gives young people the confidence and skills to make healthy and nutritious food choices and drink avaliable throughout the day

3. Physical Acitivity
Young people are provided with range of opportunities to be active, can understand how physical activity can help them be more healthy

4. Emotional and Healthy Wellbeing

Supports vulnerable individuals/groups, establishes clear bullying policies 

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Media, Leisure and Social Groups

Media has four rules: promotion/advertising, informing, educating, entertaining. There are two categories:
Category A - Legal requirement to show events on 'free on air' TV (BBC1+2, ITV1, Channel 4+5)
Category B- Live coverage on 'Pay Preview' providing there is secondary arrangement for cover on free TV

Leisure:
Active: Something that involves exertion of physical or mental energy (High Impact, Low Impact)
Passive: Includes activities such as those in which a person does not exert any significant or mental energy

Social Groups:
Gender
Ethnicity
Family
Peers 

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Extra Curricular and Cross Curricular

Extra Curricular Provision

Activity Range
It is most likely a school will offer a greater range of extra-curricular activities than they do with set curriculum because there is no requirement, more times avaliable and more staff.
Attitudes of Staff
Attitudes of staff along with their interests and abilities will be factors which influence that they propose to offer.
Facilities
All schools are either restricted or fortunate with facilities they have available. 
Club Links
Extra-curricular time is a time to develop the school club links.  

Cross Curricular Link 
English, Math, Science, Georgraphy, Food Technology, Citizenship, Music, PSHE 

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Olympic Games

Berlin 1936
Hitler ruled Germany at the head of his Nazi Party uses the games for propoganda purposes to promote his racist views.
Munich 1972
Marred by a terrorist attack on the Israeli team staged by Palestian terrorists. 11 hostages, 5 terrorists and 1 police officer were killed.
Montreal 1976
South Africa were banned from taking part because of its apartheid policy. Boycott by many African countries. It took 30 years + to pay off the debts.
Moscow 1980
Russia invaded Afganistan in 1979 so US refuesed to send its team in protest and GB also advised competitors not to go. 53 Nations boycotted.
LA 1984
The soviet union and 14 other nations boycotted. The first olympic games to make a profit.

Hosting the games can be good because new facilities and people come to the country however there is a secruity risk and high costs.  

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Competitions

Knockouts
Just involves two teams playing against eachother with the winner going on to the next round and the loser dropping out of the competition.

Leagues
Most common and involves all teams/competitors playing against eachother, often twice over a period of time/seaon.

Ladders
A set number of players/teams are on a list/ladder and you can challenge people above you to games and then take up their highest place in the ladder if you win.

Combination Events
These combine elements of some/all above. Qualifying competitions maybe played in leagues and winners then proceed to furthur knockouts/leagues. Round robin events can take place where everyone place eachother in a mini league and then just a final at the end.  

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PESSCL

Physical Education School Sports and Club Links. It was first introduced in 2003 with a target to 'increase the percentage of school children who spend a minimum of two ours a week on high quality of PE and school sport within and beyond the curriculum to 75% by 2006 and 85% by 2008'
Beyond this, the immediate aim was to ensure that by 2010 all children from 5-16years were offered at least 4 hours of sport of a week.  There are 8 strands:
1. SSC (Specialist Sports College) -> to be set up, there are currently 402
2. SSP (Specialist Sports Partnership) -> Clusters of schools around sports colleges.
3. Professional Development -> providing training for teachers &other adults.
4. Step into Sport -> To encourage involvement in sports leadership and volunteering, working with the national governing bodies of 17 different sports.
5. School/Club Links-> Between the PE department and the community
6. Gifted and Talented-> Caters specifically for the most talented sports people.
7. Swimming -> To raise the profile of swimming, and to get more pupils swimming in primary schools at least 25 metres.
8. PE and Sports Investigation -> Working with all schools and partnerships

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PESSYP

Physical Education Sport Stratergy for Young People. Was introduced in 2008 by the government which was intended to be transition from PESSCL to work with new strands but keeping hold of some of the same objectives. This is aimed at 5-19 year olds instead.  There are 10 strands:
1. Club Links -> Sport to create high quality sports club opportunities
2. Coaching -> Funds are being made avaliable for more coaches
3. Competition-> National  School Sportd Week which includes events, festivals
4. Disability->  The establishment of 450 multi-sport disablity clubs 
5. Extending activities->  Aimed at activities which go beyond traditional sports
6. Gifted and talented-> Providing support for talented young athletes
7. Infrastructure->  The SSPs are at the centre of the strategy, not only top help to deliver the two hours per week within the school but also to develop pathways for the extra allocation to be accessed outside school.
8. Leadership & Volunteering ->  Extending the 'step into school' with STEP ON STEP IN STEP UP to increase quantity, quality and diversity
9. Swimming ->   Increases the opportunities to take part 
10. Sport Unlimited -> Aims to provide funding opportunities for young people to acces sport in an after school setting.   

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Comments

marcus joyce

Great knowledge :) just needs to be more eye-catching!

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