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Page 1

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The Dumas:
1. The first Duma [April ­ June 1906]:
Elections boycotted by SRs and Bolsheviks
All groups wanted to use Duma to introduces reforms, when these requests were refused, a vote of
no confidence was passed
Was dissolved by the Tsar after 72 days
Only 2 out of 391…

Page 2

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Most radical/reformist Dumas:
FIRST DUMA:
Trudoviks = workers and peasants
Kadets = full democracy and written constitution
SECOND DUMA:
Trudoviks
Kadets (half as many)
SD's ­ Mensheviks
SRs
(Shut down as seen as a threat as they do not agree with style of rule)

THIRD AND FOURTH DUMA:
Split into…

Page 3

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Tsar forced to share political power with parliament ­ moving away from an absolute monarch
Achievements of the third and fourth Dumas:
Achieved some real reforms
E.g. ­ carried out land reforms, led by Stolypin (solved problems faced by the peasantry)
E.g. ­ replaced hated Land Captains with democratically elected…

Page 4

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Stolypin:
Stolypin:
Appointed to the Council of State
Prime Minister 1906-1911
Strong supporter if Tsarism
Viewed peasant discontent as the key danger to Tsarism
Assassinated in 1911
Aims:
Wipe out all opposition to Tsarism
Improve the conditions of the peasantry



Repression Reform
Used field court martials Freed peasants from communes…

Page 5

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What caused the February revolution?

1. WW1:
(Made the Tsarist regime unstable, both politically and economically)
It humiliated the regime:
The war effort went badly
Russian soldiers were poorly equipped and industry was unable to produce the necessary supplies
and munitions
Army used outdated tactics which led to humiliating defeats…

Page 6

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Why did Tsarism fall in February 1917?

Liberal View Soviet view Revisionists
(G.B & U.S Historians since (written in Russia since October (G.B & U.S Historians writing since
1946) optimists, pro-tsar. 1917) pro-Bolshevik 1960s) pessimists, anti-tsar

War caused economic Protests were part of Part of ongoing unrest
problems which led…

Page 7

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Why didn't the Mensheviks wanted to stick Mensheviks were Mensheviks/Soviets scared
soviet the Marxist cycle "petty-bourgeois that if they took power, they
(Mensheviks and Therefore, they then socialists" would risk being crushed by
SRs) take power expected 50-100 years, as They betrayed the w/c by the elites rejoining the Tsar,…

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