British History Revision Notes

Just a few notes I gathered for my BH exam last year- not everything is here however.
I got an A.

Hope they're useful :) 

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  • Created by: Vicky
  • Created on: 12-05-11 09:44
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British History notes Vicky Lear
The reasons for the 1906 Liberal Landslide
The Boer War
Patriotism made the conservatives win in 1900, yet it had been more
costly in lives + money than expected + the methods of defeat
caused moral outrage-concentration camps (Tories= uncaring)
Revealed the effect of poverty in the cities + the need for social
reform- 1/3 soldiers suffered from malnutrition
1902 Education Act
All schools to be funded by the rates- outraged nonconformists- their
taxes would be spent on schools to which they strongly objected
LLG (a non-conformist) fought the act and suggested to the welsh
that they vote Liberal
Balfour pushed through the act, but 70,000 people were prosecuted
for refusing to pay their taxes
Meant many non-conformists voted Liberal
1904 Licensing Act
Chinese slavery scandal
Damaged the govt in the eyes of not only the non-conformists, but
the trade unionists too
Chinese workers who worked for low wages were being imported to
South Africa- raised moral outcry from non-conformists over the
treatment of the Chinese, but also from the trade unions who feared
that employers might bring them to Britain, which would be cheaper
than employing British people- unemployment was high and this
therefore took away votes from conservatives
Neglect of social reforms
Election not fought over issue, but there was more awareness of the
extent of poverty
Boer war had exposed the amount of malnutrition- concerns of
physical decline of British race
Conservatives produced nothing except the 1902 Education Act
Highlighted by reports of Booth + Rowntree
Showed that in York, 1/3 of people lived below the poverty line
Tariff Reform
Joseph Chamberlain (1903)- wanted tariffs on goods imported from
non-empire countries- it would protect British jobs, help pay for
reforms + strengthen Britain's place in the world
However, many working + middle class voters feared that tariffs
would mean dearer food (comic Genius R.G. Wodehouse even wrote a
series of versus in the paper always ending in `your food will cost you

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British History notes Vicky Lear
E.g.…read more

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British History notes Vicky Lear
New Liberalism!
New Liberalism stressed freedom from evils such as poverty, low
wages and insecurity. It moved away from the idea of Laissez Faire
and believed that the Govt had a role in establishing the minimum
standards of life.…read more

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British History notes Vicky Lear
By 1914, over 14 million meals p.a.…read more

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British History notes Vicky Lear
Only applied to 13/45 million
Labour exchanges (1909):
Centre's where jobs were advertised + workers looked for them
Before this, people hadn't known where to look for a job
By 1913, 3,000 a day were being employed
The govt hadn't attempted to increase the number of jobs
Constitutional and political reforms
The years 1909-1911 saw a serious clash between the conservative
dominated House of Lords and the Liberal dominated House of
Commons.…read more

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British History notes Vicky Lear
The Liberals were determined that the House of Lords would never be
able to block a measure past by the house of commons.…read more

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British History notes Vicky Lear
The impact of WW1 on Britain
Situation in 1914:
8 year old Liberal Govt
Believe they should carry on as normal (non-interference)
Shipping, munitions + coal remained out of Govt control
Only railways were brought immediately under control in Aug 1914-
to transport soldiers, goods...…read more

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British History notes Vicky Lear
LlG would run the cabinet with Asquith as PM (but more of an
honorable role)- this would hopefully speed up decision making
Asquith was hostile to the idea, but eventually agreed after the
conservatives threatened to resign from the Govt
The times criticized Asquith & he changed his mind
LlG resigned due to Asquith rejecting this, then the conservatives
ministers-leaving Asquith's position untenable, leading to him
resigning too
Bonar Law was offered the position of PM but he turned it…read more

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British History notes Vicky Lear
The convoy system
Germans unleashed a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare in
attempt to starve Britain out of the conflict
April 1917- only 6 weeks supply of corn left & 430 British ships had
been lost
LlG insisted on a `convoy system' despite arguments from the
Merchant ships would sail, protected by war ships = SUCCESS!
Failures of LlG
Failed to extend control over the army
Passchendale with 250,000 casualties hadn't been prevented
1918- The Maurice Debate- General Maurice…read more

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Pre-war (the suffragettes)
the fight for women's suffrage (NUWSS) had been led by Millicent
Fawcett (1987) & the WSPU (1903) by Emmeline Pankhurst
The Pankhurst's believed the NUWSS weren't militant enough
NUWSS used peaceful, non-violent methods such as discussions,
public meetings and processions to get their point across
The WSPU burnt down churches, vandalized Oxford Street, chained
themselves to Buckingham palace & refused to pay their taxes
These methods actually angered the public & politicians as they
bombed LlGs…read more


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