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We can place great/limited weight on what this source says because...…read more

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What were Henry's foreign policy aims?
Henry wanted to pursue his claim to the French throne ­ Henry adopted a hostile foreign policy
towards France until 1525
Henry wanted to boost his reputation, and make his `mark' on Europe
Foreign policy was quite aggressive ­ wanted war to please the nobles and gain their support
(had been denied this under Henry VII)
Bring England to the centre of international affairs
Wanted to create an image of himself as a warrior, like previous Kings such as…read more

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Henry's status and prestige enhanced Battle of the Spurs was an accident/luck,
wasn't significant
Henry leads an army into battle
Discovers Wolsey
Evaluation of the First French War:
War with Scotland, The Battle of Flodden 1513:
August: King James IV invades England in Henry's absence
There were 3 lines of English defence: North, Midlands and South
Earl of Surrey's troops defeat the Scots in September
King James IV and many nobles were killed
Scotland was no longer an immediate threat to England
The Treaty of…read more

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Maximillian replaced by Charles V as HRE in 1519
Increasing Habsburg-Valois rivalry ­ England courted as an ally
Followed directly after a meeting with Charles V in England
Attempts to enforce the Treaty of London
Henry deciding who to ally with in future conflict ­ Wolsey = pro-French, Catherine =
Henry built a massive structure
Included a tiltyard for jousting ­ showcase athleticism?
Henry met Francis I at the Field of Cloth of Gold in June 1520 ­ tries to outdo each…read more

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Recurring themes:
Depends on major powers
Marriage and betrothal of Mary to secure allies
Aims of war not met ­ no nearer to becoming King of France
Unreliable allies
Some division over direction of policy
The divorce and foreign policy:
Henry's desire for a divorce meant he could no longer be allied to Charles V
The problem was compounded by the fact that only the Pope could grant a divorce and, after the
Sack of Rome, he was effectively Charles' prisoner ­ This was a…read more

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Wolsey's foreign policy aims:
Prestige (for England, Henry and himself)
Personal advancement - Pope
Provide good service
Interpretations of Wolsey's foreign policy aims:
Traditional Interpretation:
Try to maintain the balance of power between France and the Holy Roman Empire by
supporting the weaker one
Creighton 1888:
To increase his own domination and so serve England's interests
Pollard 1929:
To defend the interests of the Pope first and so increase his own chances of becoming Pope
Scarisbrick 1968:
to work towards international peace…read more

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Keeper of the Great Seal, used to authorize all important state documents
(Delivers executive control, nothing becomes law until Wolsey permits)
Responsible for organising and supervising law courts
Senior judge, sat regularly in the Court of Chancery
(Control over the nobility ­ chance to show superiority over them, mass wealth and chance to
dispense patronage [make people loyal])
Lord Chancellor: gave Wolsey power over the legal system
Using his own Court (Star Chamber) to overturn unjust common law verdicts in favour of
commoners [caused resentment…read more

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Wolsey and anti-clericalism:
As Papal Legate, Wolsey did little to reform the Church:
He appeared relatively untroubled by corruption.…read more

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Despised by two greatest nobles: Norfolk & Suffolk ­ however did not try to undermine his authority in
the 1520s
Guy: by the time that Wolsey debated policy with the nobility, the decision had already been made in
private with the king and Wolsey may have paid lip service to conciliar government but his close
partnership with the King created envy and no little resentment
Loathed because:
Was of low birth and subsequent vanity and ostentation
Legal findings went against the nobility
Monopoly of patronage…read more



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