KQ4 Revision Notes: How far did Western Democratic Structures succeed in the Federal Republic?

Revision Notes on Key Question 4 of the course Dictatorship and Democracy in Germany 1933-63

Specifically for AS OCR History A Unit F964 Option B

Study Topic 4: Dictatorship and Democracy in Germany 1933–63

[Sepcification for my course on pg 63 of:http://www.ocr.org.uk/download/kd/ocr_9582_kd_gce_spec.pdf]

Thanks to this member whose notes helped me:http://getrevising.co.uk/resources/ocr_germany_1933_63_kq_4

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Preview of KQ4 Revision Notes: How far did Western Democratic Structures succeed in the Federal Republic?

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How far did Western democratic structures
succeed in the Federal Republic?
The Western Zones (1945-49)
The Four `D's
1. Denazification
Methods: Problems:
The Nuremberg Trials: Trials ­ evidence was questionable on a legal basis
Set up to punish Nazi leaders. and the allies refused to be tried on a similar basis
No real laws on how they should be dealt with. ­no real laws surrounding the matter ­ controversy.
Court tried Nazis on four matters: war crimes, crimes Not as successful as hoped ­ Nazi state was
against peace, crimes against humanity, conspiring to destroyed but purge was limited.
commit the first three crimes. Many imprisoned Nazis given amnesties in 1951.
Began 20th November 1945. Loopholes ­ prominent Nazis got away.
22 Nazi leaders prosecuted as well as the NDASP, Task too large.
Gestapo, SS, SA, SD and the leadership of the Zones weren't in agreement.
German army. Germans more concerned with constructing the
Hitler, Himmler and Goebbels had already committed future than destroying the past.
suicide. Allies later distracted by Cold War.
Trials lasted 218 days ­ slow process of translation ­
not all Nazis could be prosecuted this way.
12 leaders sentenced to death, 10 actually executed.
Other Measures:
All Germans should fill in a questionnaire and would
be categorised as:
I. Major offenders
II. Offenders incriminated
III. Less incriminated offenders
IV. Fellow traveller ­ sympathisers
V. Exonerated persons
US zone ­ most zealous ­ 14% in Category I ­ most
people in category IV.
British zone ­ questionnaire not as strictly pursued ­
most people in category V and ex-NDASP members
allowed to return to their jobs.
French Zone ­ small ­ manpower limited and
denazification was a low-priority ­ 52% weren't
2. Democratisation
1945 formation of democratic parties `licensed' (still wanted political control).
SPD (Social Democrats) led by Schumacher ­ had a loyal electorate of workers.
CDU (Christian Democrats) led by Konrad Adenauer.
KPD (German Communist Party) led by Ulbricht and Pieck ­ banned in 1956.

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LDPD ­ replaced by FDP (Free Democratic Party) led by Heuss in 1948 due to influence of the SED over the
LDPD in the East.
3. Decentralisation
US zone ­ supported due to their own federal government system ­ established administrative structures for
three Länder. May 1946 first free federal elections.
British Zone ­ doubted Germans' ability to build up a democracy ­ preferred to keep close control through
centralised administration ­ financially more expensive so in 1947 free federal elections were held.…read more

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Bizone created the German Economic Council ­ power to pass laws on economic matters.
1949 April ­ French Zone entered the Bizone, forming the Trizone.
2. The Marshall Plan (1947)
`Truman Doctrine' declared ­ President stated it was the US's mission to contain the spread of Communism.
June ­ Marshall (Secretary of State) offered to seek Congress' agreement to provide money to stabilise
ERP (European Recovery Programme) or Marshall Plan.
Stalin forbade Eastern bloc from accepting.
Widened gap between East and West.
3.…read more

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Electoral System Pluralism of political parties.
Prevented parties' abolition.
Direct votes (e.g. plebiscites) on important laws and issues forbidden.
Mixed member proportional representation.
1953 5% hurdle introduced.
Supreme Court New agency with the right to investigate and prevent anti-democratic activities.
New constitution court and agency ­ fended off threats to democracy.
Banned the SRP (Socialist Reich Party), various communist organisations, the League of
German Youth and the KPD.…read more

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SPD hostile to Adenauer's western integration.
1952 Schumacher died ­ support for the SPD dwindled.
Cold War ­ led to mistrust of Communism.
People getting used to divided Germany and western integration was attractive ­ loss of support for the
1959 ­ SPD pursued a more liberal economic stance whilst aiming to overcome social inequality ­
acknowledged Western integration and remilitarisation as necessary.
From 1959 ­ SPD opened itself to a much broader electorate ­ portrayed itself as a mass movement.…read more

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The Western Economy
Erhard was the Economic Minister.
Aimed for rising consumption and economic growth.
Social Market Economy ­ some state intervention ­ third way between capitalism and socialism.
Wanted to combine economic and political freedom with social justice and security.
Protect private property and support enterprise and investment whilst intervening to defend the interests
of the individual.
The Economic Miracle
FRG inherited several advantages ­ resources, skilled workforce, $1.5bn Marshall Aid.
1951 Korean War stimulated trade.…read more

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France tried to negotiate a European Defence Community ­ caused opposition ­ resistance to rearmament by
the SPD and some elements in the CDU.
FRG negotiated with France ­ German Sovereignty would be granted and Occupational Statute ended in
1955 and Western Powers kept their rights over West Berlin.
The EDC was put aside ­ West European Union of France, Britain and the Benelux states expanded to include
the FRG and Italy ­ defensive pact which allowed the FRG to create an army, the Bundeswehr.…read more

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German Federation of Trade Unions ­ umbrella organisation unions created in
1949 ­ stronger negotiations with the government and employers rather than
counteracting each other.
1951 Co-determination Law ­ workers had representatives on industrial
managerial boards.
1952 Works' Constitution Law ­ co-determination extended and created a
works council for all employees and companies with more than 500 workers.
1952 ­ new understanding emerged between employees, employers and the
government.…read more

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Still an expectation that women would adhere to the three Ks.
Consumerism: 1950s ­ slow growth in wages ­ people saved a lot due to war mentality ­ 11% owned a
Second half of the 1950s ­ more rapid rise in standards of living as unions' power
increased ­ people able to demand higher wages.
By 1962 ­ 63% owned a fridge.
Optimism and satisfaction.
Increase in ownership of private property.
People showed off their wealth.…read more


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