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The Dumas (1906-1914)

The fundamental law

March 1906 N2 issued the fundamental law of the Russian empire which broke some of the
promises he made in the October manifesto and reasserted his author
o The tsar had supreme autocratic power
o He could govern by issuing decrees
o The council…

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More right wing, so prepared to work with the government rather than
challenge it
Most proposals from the government were passed
Lasted over 4 years
Last but not least duma #4 (nov 1912-feb 1917)
o Made up of
Octobrists and other right wing parties
o What did they do?
Worked…

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Stolypin ­ repression ad reform

Ruthless attitude to unrest

Used police and army to suppress unrest and keep a firm grip on people
1906 became prime minister. By then most revolutionary activity had been put down but there
were still disturbances in the country, and political assasinations were happening more…

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Few peasants could afford to separate from the mir and set up their own landholdings
o Only 25% had by 1914
o Stolypin hadn't addressed the problem that there was still millions of hectares owned
by the tsar and the nobility
o There was little change in farming tequineces
o…

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Russia and the first would war.

The war highlighted the weaknesses in the government and society

Armed forces.
o Millions of men were conscripted into large armies.
o Enthusiasm for war was shattered by early defeats like Tanneberg and the Masurian
lakes in 1914
o Conditions were poorer with insuffiencent…

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Political opposition
o 1914 most political parties supported the war effete and the duma was suspended
o 1915 failures in the war forced N" to recall duma ­ which repeated demands of first
duma.
o N2 rejected his and the duma parties united to form the progressive Bloc which
continued…

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The February revolution 1917

Economic and social problems

Russian towns were over crowded with poor sanitation and water supplies
Famines was common and food supplies unreliable
Living condition for workers were cramped and unhealthy
Work hours were long with little pay
Heath and education were poor and created social inequalities…

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The February revolution took the SR's by surprise

They failed to seize control
Most leading Bolsheviks were aboard
Only influence they gave was the establishment of the Petrograd soviet, which shared power
with the PG

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Dual power

The PG and the PS shared power

Provisional government
o Led by Prince Lvov
o Mainly made up of kadets and other liberals
o Alexander Kerensky was the of SR in the PG
o Had no lawful authority as not appointed or elected not what people wanted
o…

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Opposition to the Provisional Government

Conflicting attitudes towards war

Socialist parties
o Wanted defensive war
o Thought army shouldn't advance against enemy but prevent them advancing into Russia
Kadets and liberals
o Wanted to continue fighting
o Believed they had obligation towards allies
o Peace with Germany would mean loss…

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