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Nicholas II's polices: Witte
Nicholas II's personal issues In the 1890s industry grow so quickly the term "The Great Spurt" was used.
· Pobedonostsev: Nicholas was tutored by this man. Known as the "Great State Capitalism Witte thought Russia needed to raise Railways
Inquisitor" because of his repressive attitudes. He had a deep hatred for This is the direction capital. So he... most of the capital
liberalism and democracy. Believed in Programs and that the "dark masses" and control of the ·Negotiated Loans from abroad. was invested in this.
should not be allowed to vote as they were too uneducated and vulgar. He said economy by the ·Protective Tariffs were set up as a Called the
representative government was the "great lie of our time" government using its means of protecting Russia's "transport
central power and domestic industries revolution"
·Easily Manipulated and Swayed: Especially by his wife Alixandra and authority
·Gold Standard implemented on
Pobedonostsev later on Rasputin Witte believed that
currency. Making it stable and year Miles of
modernization could track
encouraging FDI in Russia.
only be achieved
·Lacked Imagination: Many of his policies were just a continuation or This was mainly successful. But 1881 13,270
modification of older ones introduced by his father Alexander III. penalised consumers at home. Since
Foreign help the higher value currency made
· Ministers: He mistrusted most of his ministers and yet was incapable of Invited foreign experts products already scarce more 1900 33,270
and workers to advice.
carrying out the task of ruling the vast Russian empire alone. Plus engineers and expensive. 1913 43,850
managers from Europe. (+230%
Nicholas II's Policies Key Developments
Remember! The Tsar only
Russification wanted to modernise to gave ·Private Enterprise
This Restricted the influence of non Russian national minorities with in the empire by it a strong military force!! ·State Capitalism
emphasising all things Russian. 1885 onwards 50% of
government spending on
To impose Russian ways and values on all the people within the empire
·Russian declared as official language causing all legal proceedings to be performed in
The Great Spurt
Russian. Public office closed for those not fluent in Russian.
·Discrimination was more open and vindictive
·Over 600 new polices introduced to pose heavy social, political & economic restrictions Population growth
on the 5 million strong Jewish population Urban Growth (urbanization)
·Jews lived in Ghettos and suffered from Pogroms(fierce violent attacks) Russification
and therefore Tsardom actively encouraged this. Group called "black hundreds" were Witte's reforms
notorious for Pogroms.
Result: Foreign Loans Capital Industrialization Railways
Policy alienated half of Russia's population. This led to large pockets of anti-tsarist investment
minorites forming across the empire and many people joined political parties or just
developed a hatred of Tsardom.
·Jewish Bund formed in 1897: this was a Jewish anti-tsarist movement…read more
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Witte impacts: Good & Bad
Bolshevik Menshevik Split (SD)
·Annual production (millions of tons) No doubt his policies were good, but did have
Coal Pig Oil Grain Disagreement over the party size had
Iron ·Plekhanov (for founder of fundamentally split the party. Lenin
·Made Russia too dependant of foreign Russian Marxism) claimed his side were the majority
1890 5.9 0.89 3.9 36 loans ·Martov which means Bolshinstov in Russian.
1913 35.4 4.1
·Neglected areas such as light engineering
9.1 90 They split into two
·Paid no attention to agriculture
·Growth figures are not as impressive as Marxist parties in 1903
· Urbanisation working classes their was a huge increase in population at
reached aprox. 11 million the time
A mass organisation with Disagreement A tight knit, exclusive
membership open to all organisation of professional
·Growth of railways by 230% in 30 The party revolutionaries
His freedom of polices were restricted Open, democratic discussion Decision making Authority to be exercised by the
·Russia became the 4th largest with the party. Votes of Central Committee of the party
economy and he often was told to focus more on members made decisions.
military. Witte was disliked by the royal
·In 1900 economy expanding at
court and therefore not trusted. This Alliance with other parties Strategy No cooptation with other parties
8% per annum
meant the very system he was trying to
protect restricted him despite his ability.
Political Opposition to the Tsarist system Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 Outcome
Russia lost, but why?
Causes View of Japanese Russia's Weakness
Type Populists Liberals Marxists ·Territorial disputes ·Saw them as an inferior ·Military poorly equipped
(revolutionaries) (Reformists) ·Minster or war belied nation and was very racist ·Logistic problems in running
Nicholas wanted to expand towards it. Referred to as "yellow a war from 6000 miles away
Groups ·Peoples will No real organised ·Social democrats empire into Asia further. danger, the new hordes of Mongols ·Commanders using 19th
(Nicholas cousins Kaiser Wilhelm once with modern tec" century tactics (bayonet
·Social party pre 1900 (SDs) called Nic the Admiral of the pacific)
Revolutionaries (SRs) ·Octoberists (later split in Bol + · Witte wanted to expand
· Russia turned it into a charges)
·Kadets Men) patriotic struggle. War was ·Underestimated Japs
economy into the far east
·Obtain an ice free port nothing less than the Japans Strength
Importance ·Assassinations ·Limited as ·Industrial unrest ·Distract from domestic defence of Russia's ·Under Maji emperors Japan
·Contributed to government just would of occurred issues (Plehve said "a little victories European identity against had rapidly modernized
many rising and ignored requests with out them war to stem revolution) the Asian hordes. · Better equipped & prepared
unrest ·Backwardness of because of Russian fleet
Russia made them industrialization, so Port Arthur fell destroyed at Effect
weak easy to over state in Jan 1905 Tsushima , may ·National humiliation
their importance at 1905 (after ·Showed incompetence of government
Russian sailing for 8
this time! months to get
·Excited the unrest in the country (this shown by the
their was sunk
assassination of Plehve in 1904, in Warsaw this was
Mukden in Feb
1905 immediately celebrated by crowds in the streets)…read more
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Key dates from 1905 & aftermath
Bloody Sunday (22nd Disorder spreads
1905 Jan Bloody Sunday
January 1905) Because of Russo-Japanese war,
1905 May Union of Unions formed
Bloody Sunday and all other
1905 June The Potemkin Mutiny Russia's problems
1905 Oct October manifesto Duma / St Petersburg Soviet formed Father Gapon led a peaceful march of workers and
their families to the winter palace to present a
· Strikes in all major settlements
1905 Nov Moscow Soviet formed petition to the Tsar, begging him to improve · Terrorism against goverment
1906 Fundamental Laws / First Duma
conditions and landlords (Plehve killed)
· Public buildings attacked
1907 Second Duma · large private estates attacked
1907 -12 Third Duma · land and property seized by
1911 Stolypin Assassinated The march caused the police force to · Georgia declared itself an
panic and they fired on the marchers independent state
1912 Lena Goldfields and charged down by the cavalry! · Jews demanded equal rights
1912 - 14 Forth Duma / WW1 ·Approximately 200 dead · Union of Unions formed (called
goverment "gang of robbers")
Potemkin Mutiny Reasons for 1905 Rising
Governments own responsibility
Throughout Crew of the Battle Their was Troops were sent
1905 had ship Prince Potemkin serious anti- in. Marched
been mutinied at sea. This goverment though with Repression Taxation leadership
instances of was over the bad strikes in bayonets,
troops food and water they Odessa and the trampling over
refusing to were given. Crew took crew were people and driving
Social unrest Economic recession Bad harvests
fire/disperse over the ship from the greaten as many into the sea.
on unarmed officers and sailed to Heroes. Peasants anger over mortgage repayments
peasants Odessa 1000s dead!
Workers anger over unemployment and falling wages
Very worrying for the goverment as a goverment that cannot rely
on the loyalty of its armed forces is in a very vulnerable position. Russia's humiliation to Japan
Witte feared troops returning form Russo-Japanese war would join the
revolution. If this happened, he said "then everything would collapse"…read more
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1905 Impacts (What it showed)
1905 showed that as long as the Tsarist goverment kept its nerve and the army loyal,
the forces of protest would find it hand to mount a serious challenge
Few Liberals enjoyed co-operating with the workers. Many were frightened by the primitive
forces (dark masses). Liberals betrayed workers and backed out of the revolution, leaving them to
be crushed by the troops.
Tsardom emerged stronger than it had entered 1905. with the loyal support of its armies.
Trotsky said about the Tsarist system: "although with a few broken rips, had come out of the
experience of 1905 alive and strong"
Fundamental Laws April 1906
Despite the concessions the Tsars power was not limited. The Duma was not a
limitation of the Tsars autocratic power. This was made clear by the Fundamental Laws.
A quote: "No law can come into law with his(Tsars) approval"
Stolypin and the land reform 1906-1911 The Russian Economy after Witte 1906-1914
End of great spurt
How to feed Russia's growing population?
Rural Crisis Global Recession
The problem of land shortages and overpopulation of
the countryside caused by rapid population growth.
Population explosion in cities
Bad harvests in 1890s led to famine in 1891 and 1897.
"De-Revolutionising" Wager on the strong (1906-07)
Did it work? Inflation - Unemployment - overcrowding
the peasants Stolypin introduced measure to
Stolypin had little chance of success as
High price of land led to high restore peasants sense of security. His
Russian peasantry was so backwards
mortgage (redemption) aim was to create a layer of
and he had so little time to change
payments. One of the prosperous, productive peasants.
things. Conservatism (suspicion of
reasons that peasant joined Whose new wealth would turn them
the 1905 revolution is the into a Tsarist supporter
change, therefore resistance to it) of Workers unrest
most peasants prevented change
fear that government would · Farmers urged to abolish strip
occurring. Also Stolypin admitted he
reposes land. In 1905 system with fenced fields
needed 20 years to achieve success.
government cleared this · A Land Bank established, to allow a
He was assassinated in 1911 and
debt to "de-revolutionise" independent peasant to buy his own Result: Economy increased, but Russia cant be called a modern industrial state as 4/5 of population are still
therefore only got 5,
the peasants land
peasants. Workers had terrible conditions. "At mercy of employers"…read more
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Before first Duma met the Tsar
· Loaned from France to restrict Dumas financial control
Dumas · Issued Fundamental laws
· Made Duma "Bi-Cameral" (this split the Duma in two, one chamber elected, another (with right to
The Vyborg Appeal
1906-1914 Veto) were appointed by Tsar)
Result: Dumas had no real power, Tsarist regime no intentions of allowing concessions it
had made in 1905 After the first Duma was dissolved the frustration led to 200 Kadet and
First Duma Duma was dominated by Reformist parties, they demanded the Duma have more power, the Labourists deputies to reassemble in Finland. Here they drew up the "appeal"
April-June 1906 opposition the Duma presented the Tsar caused him to say "curse the Duma, its all Witte's urging Russia's people to defy Russia's government by...
doing". He then dissolved it after only two months. It achieved nothing (then Vybord Appeal)
· Refusing to pay taxes
Second Duma Loss of Kadets seats were filled by SD's and SR's. This caused a clash between the Right-Wing · Disobeying conscription orders
Feb-June 1907 and revolutionaries parties. As well as a clash between the Duma and the Tsarist system once However Russians did not conduct widespread passive disobedience, but
again. Dissolved by Nic ended in disorder scattered violence occurred.
Why Tsar Kept Duma: Despite the opposition of first two Dumas the Tsar kept them because the Tsar wanted to show Russia as
a democratic nation to boast foreign relations and trade, this worked.
So: Stolypin rendered Duma docile by changing voting laws. Peasants and workers lost votes and Tsars supporters gained
Reaction by Government: violence gave government the excuse for retaliation.
votes, third and forth Dumas were now PRO Tsar and full of ring wing parties Stolypin appointed by Tsar as strongman. Vyborg deputies arrested and banned
Third Duma Third Duma more cooperative with government, enabled Stolypin to push though his Land for re-election into Duma.
Nov 07 June Reforms . Among the 2571 bills it approved were social reforms measures that included the This led to Stolypins policy of repression. Liberals never recovered from
1912 humiliation. Which allowed
setting up of schools for poor children and national insurance for industrial workers ·Martial Law proclaimed
left and right parties to think
· Military courts opened and used to quell disturbances reform could only be achieved
Social reform work continued. But this Duma did criticise the government. An Okhrana report
Nov 12- August in 1912 blamed the tensions in Russia on the awkward and searching questions the Duma was · between 1906-1911, 2500 people were executed though revolution
asking of government policy · Hangman's Noose renamed the "Stolypin Necktie"
War and Revolution
Growing tensions in Russia, 1911-14 1914
Germany declares war on Russia
Forth Duma suspended
1915 Forth Duma reconvened
Following Stolypin's assassination in 1911, the various ministers appointed by June-July
the Tsar were all incompetent. And just enforced further repression. Terror was June 25th Progressive bloc formed in Duma
used to programs returned to province August 22nd Nicholas made himself Commander-In-Chief of Russia's armies
· From 1911 to 1914 strikes rose from 24 to 2400
1916 Rasputin killed by group of aristocrats
· 17000 acts of terrorism (although a lot not political, just mindless) December 1st
1917 February revolution
The Lena Goldfields Incident, Anger among the Moderates (Tsars Government remained Feb 18 March 4th
1912 supporters) hostile towards reform,
Demands from miners in the In 1913 the Octoberist leader told his not only economic Feb 18th Strike Begins in Petrograd
Lena Goldfields, Siberia, for party that their aim for change needed, but also
Feb 23th IWD sees the beginning of widespread workers demonstrations
better pay and better "a peaceful, painless transition from political, which
conditions led to the employers the old condemned system to a new government was not Feb 25th City-wide strike in Petrograd
appealing to the police. When order" willing to accept, instead
the police moved in the Miners Had failed. just repressed. After Feb 27th Unofficial meeting of Duma coincides with first meeting of Petrograd soviet
closed ranks and situation This shows even the Tsars supporters Witte and Stolypin that
worsened. Resulted in troops were starting to turn against him due to "might" have saved Feb 28th Nicholas ii prevented from returning to Petrograd by railway workers
firing on miners and killing large his governments incompetence to deal Tsarism were either
March 4TH PG formed from Duma committee
numbers with problems Russia's faced. ignored or killed Tsarism
was doomed. Tsar signs abdication decree…read more