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TOPIC 1 DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE AND
PROCESSING

DATA

Defined as raw facts and figures before they have been processed.

"Raw facts and figures" means without meaning. E.g. 47547FDFW%%$
Data can be alphanumeric characters, sound or graphics.


INFORMATION

Defined as Information = Data + [Structure] + [Context] + Meaning

Processing is…

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Format Advantages Disadvantages
Text Clear to understand Need to be able to
Lots of detail read
Need to understand
language
Can be confusing if
complex words used
Lots of text can't be
read quickly

Graphics Multilingual (No need Can be confusing if
for use of language) you don't know what…

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fire alarms are sound rather than text based, early learning toys are sound, picture
and text based.


KNOWLEDGE

Defined as the use and application of the information to a situation.

We get knowledge by giving data meaning, structure and context.

Data Information Knowledge
45, 65 Scores for team 1 and…

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Indirect (Secondary) Data ­ data which as has been used for a purpose other
than the one it was collected for or data that was collect by another organisation
such as a marketing research company who then sell the data to other companies.

Advantages Disadvantages
Direct Source and collection is…

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Having irrelevant data to a subject is worthless and is a disadvantage as it
increases the volume of data and this could result in an increased time to read/look
at it.

Information can change over time and may not be relevant as it ages.

If half the info is missing…

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VALIDATION
Check performed by computer to prevent data being entered incorrectly using
preset rules. This is done by using the following checks:

Range ­ sets upper and lower boundaries for data ­ the data must lie between
these two values.

Type ­ Is looking for a specific type of data…

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Transcription error ­ make a mistake copying data such as double striking a key

Transposition error ­ where two characters are accidently reversed


BACKS UP & ARCHIVING

Back up's are copies of current data in case there is a failure in the computer
system (power cut, virus etc.) so the…

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INPUT ­ entering external data in to the system by either manual input (e.g.
keyboard) or automated (e.g. OMR Optical Magnetic Reader) or by electronic means
(e.g. CD).

PROCESSING ­ Action performed on data. This can include sorting, searching,
calculations etc.

STORAGE ­ Where data is held. It could be…

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