TOPIC 1:Data, Information, Knowledge & Processing (ICT AS OCR New Spec For First Teaching 2008)

In depth notes covering the whole of topic 1 for the OCR AS (new spec for 2008 teaching). Cut down from 42 pages! =)

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  • Created on: 05-05-09 19:12
Preview of TOPIC 1:Data, Information, Knowledge & Processing (ICT AS OCR New Spec For First Teaching 2008)

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TOPIC 1 DATA, INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE AND
PROCESSING
DATA
Defined as raw facts and figures before they have been processed.
"Raw facts and figures" means without meaning. E.g. 47547FDFW%%$
Data can be alphanumeric characters, sound or graphics.
INFORMATION
Defined as Information = Data + [Structure] + [Context] + Meaning
Processing is performing actions on the data such sorting, searching, and editing to
give the data meaning. Data doesn't need a [structure] or [context] in some
situations.
Data ­ Are numbers read as that or as text (e.g. 19101990 or 19/10/1990)
Structure ­ Does the data need to be organised in anyway such as grouped by
number of characters?)
Context ­ An environment where our prior knowledge is needed to make sense of
the data
Meaning ­ The application of information to a situation
Context (Holiday website) Context (Fish Shop)
Data 12345 1532161
Structure 1 5 15 32 161
Context How good was the holiday? Customers
Meaning Bad ­ 1 Good 5 Amount per day for three
days
REPRESENTATION OF INFORMATION
Data should be kept in all formats but it's not always possible due to information
needing to be kept secure (such as Secret service intelligence, National Insurance
Numbers). Other restrictions include language barriers and disabilities (e.g. visual
and audio).
The different formats are:
Text
Graphics
Sound
Moving Pictures (Animation or video)
LED (Lightemitting diode)

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Format Advantages Disadvantages
Text Clear to understand Need to be able to
Lots of detail read
Need to understand
language
Can be confusing if
complex words used
Lots of text can't be
read quickly
Graphics Multilingual (No need Can be confusing if
for use of language) you don't know what
the symbols
represent
Some symbols don't
mean the same thing
in different countries
Sound No fixed position No good in large area
No line of sight ­ distortion of sound
required = not heard or…read more

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KNOWLEDGE
Defined as the use and application of the information to a situation.
We get knowledge by giving data meaning, structure and context.…read more

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Indirect (Secondary) Data ­ data which as has been used for a purpose other
than the one it was collected for or data that was collect by another organisation
such as a marketing research company who then sell the data to other companies.…read more

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Having irrelevant data to a subject is worthless and is a disadvantage as it
increases the volume of data and this could result in an increased time to read/look
at it.
Information can change over time and may not be relevant as it ages.
If half the info is missing it is worthless.
If the info is presented in a way which is hard to understand, navigate or
comprehend it loses value.…read more

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VALIDATION
Check performed by computer to prevent data being entered incorrectly using
preset rules. This is done by using the following checks:
Range ­ sets upper and lower boundaries for data ­ the data must lie between
these two values.
Type ­ Is looking for a specific type of data and doesn't allow wrong type of
data to be entered i.e. Numeric, Real, Integer, Boolean, Date/time.
Presence ­ AKA existence checks. The computer will insist that a value is
entered for that field.…read more

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Transcription error ­ make a mistake copying data such as double striking a key
Transposition error ­ where two characters are accidently reversed
BACKS UP & ARCHIVING
Back up's are copies of current data in case there is a failure in the computer
system (power cut, virus etc.) so the data can be restored. There are many different
backup devices such as external memory (floppy, CD, pen drive), external HD's,
second copy of a disk and storing off site.…read more

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INPUT ­ entering external data in to the system by either manual input (e.g.
keyboard) or automated (e.g. OMR Optical Magnetic Reader) or by electronic means
(e.g. CD).
PROCESSING ­ Action performed on data. This can include sorting, searching,
calculations etc.
STORAGE ­ Where data is held. It could be before, during or after processing has
taken place but the data is still within the system.…read more

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