Part 1 of OCR AS Level ICT

Information, Knowledge and Processing and The Role and Impact of ICT are included here.

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Beth Haworth
ICT Theory
Beth Haworth
Acts Leading to Data Security
The Data Protection Act
Became law on 12th July 1984.
Was updated in 1998.
Doesn't just apply to computer data also to paper files/ hard copies.
There are eight principles under the act:
o Data must be fairly and lawfully processed.
o Must be processed for limited purposes.
o Must be adequate, relative and not excessive.
o Must be accurate and up to date.
o It must not be kept for longer than is necessary.
o Must be processed in line with the public's rights.
o Must be kept in a secure environment.
o Must not be transferred to other countries without adequate protection.
What rights do the public have?
You have the right to view any information held about you. (Subject access
You have the right to ask that any information held about you that is incorrect should
be updated and made correct.
o If the information is entered wrongly, is out of date, or confused with
somebody else's, it can cause problems.
o You could be unfairly refused jobs, housing benefits, credit or a place at
college or university.
Exemptions from the act:
It does not apply to payroll, pensions and accounts data.
Data held for recreational use/ leisure it is exempt from the act (e.g. address books,
Christmas card lists).
Exemptions for special categories:
In connection with national security.
Prevention of crime.
Collection of tax or duty.
Computer Crime and the Law
Computer Crime and Malpractice
AS Level IT Theory

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Page 2

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Beth Haworth
As IT has spread, so has computer crime and abuse. The internet is used by innocent
members of the public but also by fraudulent traders, paedophiles, software pirates, hackers
and terrorists. Activities might include planting computer viruses, storing pornographic
images, carrying out all sorts of crimes, from credit card fraud to complex multinational
money laundering.
Computer crime involves illegal activity.
Computer malpractice, in law, means professional negligence when providing computer
related services.…read more

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Beth Haworth
A virus is a piece of software which affects a computer in a negative way. It is developed
with a definite intention to cause damage to computer files or at least cause inconvenience or
Viruses are usually found as the first few instructions of a particular program on an infected
disk or rely on a user choosing to execute the aforementioned program. So when executed,
the virus is the first set of instructions to be performed.…read more

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Beth Haworth
It was introduced due to concerned regarding the use and misuse of communication
interception techniques by public and private organisations. The act allows for the lawful
interception of postal, telecommunications and digital communications. The act also makes it
a criminal offense to monitor these communications without lawful authority.
Electronic Communications Act (2000)
The legislation is in two main parts:
Cryptography service provided: This allows the government to set up a register of
approved cryptography services.…read more

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Beth Haworth
Working with a computer can be stressful in that it can handle data as quickly as the
operator can enter it. Computer technology tends to depersonalise the work environment,
reducing the opportunity of human contact so that a stressrelieving chat is not possible.
Stress is a major health issue. It costs the UK billions of pounds every year. Stressed
employees are more susceptible to other health problems, e.g. heart disease, ulcers. It can
also cause long term absence from work.…read more

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Beth Haworth
Monitors have been blamed for causing eye strain. If you spend long hours in front of the
screen you will be more prone to it. Many companies provide free eye tests for employees
and there is now legislation concerning the ambient lighting. Many employers also provide
screen filters. The monitors should be in a place where window light is not reflecting from
ELF (Extremely low frequency)
It is particularly monitors that emit electromagnet radiation. There is conflicting evidence
regarding this, however.…read more

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Beth Haworth
Last but by no means least you should take regular breaks from the computer. Ideally, this
should be five minutes every half hour. This helps relieve eye strain and prevents heart
Methods of Combating a Range of ICT Crime
Obviously, ICT crime involves a computer. It could be physical theft of the computer or its
components, or using one computer in attempt to gain access to another in order to commit
a crime.…read more

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Beth Haworth
o This is a unique identifier for a user. It identifies the user to the system. User
IDs can be allocated to groups and those groups can have access rights and
programs allocated to them, e.g. according to which user group they belong
to, a user may be only allowed to read a file, while other groups may have
edit or delete access.
o Can restrict the user to only logging on to certain machines or at certain
times of the day.…read more

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Beth Haworth
This doesn't prevent data from being stolen. However, it is unlikely that the person
attempting to read it can do so, without the appropriate software.
Network Topologies
A Local Area Network (LAN) is a collection of computers and peripherals confined to one
building or site. A Wide Area Network (WAN) connects computers or networks over a
wide geographical area, e.g. different sites, towns or continents.
A network has several advantages over a collection of standalone computers.…read more

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Beth Haworth
Advantages of a Star Network:
If one cable fails, the other stations are not affected.
You get consist performance even when the network is heavily used.
There are no problems with collision of data as each station has its own cable to the
It's easy to add new stations without affecting the rest of the network.
Disadvantage of a Star Network:
Because of the length of the cable required, it can be costly to install.…read more


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