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Data and Information:
Data ­ This is raw facts and figures that have no meaning, it needs to be
processed into a more meaningful form. It cannot be understood without a
context. E.g. `red light' means nothing without a setting.
Information ­ This is data that has been processed into a form with meaning
and is useful. Processing data into information could involve performing
calculations, sorting it or grouping the data in a certain way. E.g.…read more

Page 3

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In a supermarket the barcode is scanned so that the price can be read and then
a bill is drawn up for the customer.
Advantages of direct data:
1: The information collected will be relevant. The information collected is
exactly what the organisation wants and will not require additional processing
to filter out the irrelevant information.
2: the information collected will be complete. The information should include
organisations needs and the time will not be spent having to gather more
sources.…read more

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Five main factors affecting the quality of information:
Presented effectively: the information should be presented to the user by the
system in an appropriate format.
Accurate: information should be error free in order to prevent poor decisions
to be made and a loss of confidence in the source of the information.
Complete: the information should include everything which the organisation
needs in order to make decisions.
Relevant: Only relevant information should be supplied.…read more

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Substitution errors
Occurs when information appears to be complete, but it is incorrect.
E.g. Name: Keitj (wrong) instead of Keith (correct)
Transposition errors
The correct information is entered but it is slightly reversed or mixed up
in some way.
E.g. Name: Kieth (wrong) instead of Keith (correct)
Transmission errors
Caused by machine failure in transmitting data accurately from one piece
of hardware to another. They can arise from interference on the
network.…read more

Page 6

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If it doesn't fall between these boundaries it is not
accepted and an error message is displayed.
Batch total: batch total are applied to groups of data and used to make sure
that the data is correct by checking the original batch total against a
recalculated total.
Presence check: also known as existence check, this ensures that important
data is not omitted by altering the user if an input field is left blank or null.…read more

Page 7

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Hardware Overheads
Computers and peripherals including:
Storage media, including online storage and data backups
Printers and associates running costs such as paper and toner.
Network hardware such as a server will be required to store and process
Cost of bills if installing a WAN etc
Applications Software e.g. off the shelf, custom-built software
Systems Software e.g. operating systems, software licenses and cost of
upgrades when required.
Data collection costs e.g.…read more

Page 8

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Standardising Bodies
· Postal, Telegraph & Telephone
· Name given to mail regulators (traditional & electronic)
· i.e.…read more

Page 9

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Made up of national standards bodies
· Not a Govt organisation but ISO standards are more likely to become law
· Remit covers a wide range of areas:
­ Defining units of time and measurement to
­ Setting standards for CD formats
· American National Standards Institute
· American representative of ISO
· Oversees creation and use of thousands of standards
· Standards are worldwide and include:
­ Film & shutter speeds in cameras
­ ANSI C ­ standardised version of C programming language…read more

Page 10

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· Association for Computing Machinery
· American equivalent of BCS
· delivers resources that advance computing as a science and a profession
· Provide a Digital Library of computer science literature, publications, online
books, courses
Input & Output Devices
· Have Keys which when pressed send digital code to the computer, Gives computer
· Four groups of keys on QWERTY keyboard are ­ Numeric Keyboard, Function keys
and Cursor keys.
28.…read more


Charlotte Buick

Do you have any revision notes for ccea a2 ict? these ones are great!!!


Do you have any a2 notes? Would be greatly appreciated!


Thank you so much- these notes were amazingly helpful to me! I wish you had A2 as well :P


do you have a2 notes?:)


Hey Stephen I am CCEA A2 ICT student i found your AS notes extremely helpful and was wondering would you have any A2 notes, if so could you send them to be it would be appreciated very much



any word on a2 notes?

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