OCR AS ICT Unit 1 Chapter 7

This is the COMPLETE revision card set for Chapter 7 of AS OCR ICT. G061.

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  • Created on: 18-04-14 15:54

Chapter 7 - Data Protection Act (1998)

Data Protection Act (1998) - Protects individuals from organisations by limiting the data held by individual organisation to only that which they need.

6 Main Individual Rights:

  • To subject access
  • Prevent processing likely to cause damange or distress.
  • Prevent processing for the purposes of direct marketing.
  • In relation to automated decision making.
  • To compensation if damage and distress is suffered by the act contravened.
  • To rectify, block or erase incorrect data.
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Chapter 7 - Data Protection Act (1998)

8 Principles - Personal Data...

  • Shall be processed fairly and lawfully
  • Shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes
  • Shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to purpose
  • Shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date
  • Shall not be kept any longer than is necessary for the purpose it is required
  • Shall be processed in accordance with the rights of data subjects
  • Must be kept secure
  • Shall not be transferred outside the EU, unless the country has adequate protection
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Chapter 7 - Computer Misuse Act (1990)

Computer Misuse Act (1990) - Protects data held by companies from hackers.

4 Main Provisions:

  • Unauthorised access to computer material.
  • Unauthorised access with intent to commit or facilitate the commission of further offences.
  • Unauthorised acts with intent to impair, or with recklessness as to impairing, operation of a computer
  • Making, supplying or obtaining articles for the use in computer misuse offences (e.g. trojans).

Problems:

  • Difficult to find who is responsible.
  • Confidential info. can be obtained and accessed and then gotten rid of before they get prosecuted.
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Chapter 7 - Copyright, Designs & Patents Act

Copyright, Designs & Patents Act (1988) - Makes it illegal to steal or create unauthorised copies of software, manuals, books, CDs and music.

  • Ensures people are rewarded through royalties for their effort to produce such content.
  • Downloading copyrighted content damages people's livelihoods.
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Chapter 7 - Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act

Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000) - Enables organisations (i.e. police) to carry out lawful interception of postal, telecommunications and digital communications, with the concent of a person carrying on a business.

Aims of interception:

  • Prevent or detect crimes.
  • To ensure national security.

Benefits/Problems:

  • Ensures facilities are being used for legitimate work.
  • Helps keep company secrets unrevealed.
  • Any form of monitoring can be seen as a breach of trust.
  • Concerns about what controls there are on organisations who monitor communications.
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Chapter 7 - Electronic Communications Act

Electronic Communications Act (2000) - To create a legal framework so that people can be sure about the origin and integrity of communications.

2 Parts of the Act:

  • Cryptography service providers - Allows the govt. to set up a register of approved cryptography suppliers.
  • Facilitation of electronic commerce, data storage - Recognises digital signatures which are now admissable in law.

Benefits/Problems:

  • Contracts signed over the internet have the same legality as those signed by hand.
  • Firm/individuals can feel secure that ecommerce transactions are safe and secure.
  • Lots of legislation against digital signatures.
  • Always a security risk.
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Chapter 7 - Freedom of Information Act

Freedom of Information Act (2000) - Allows anyone to make a request to access information on any topic from any public authority.

Benefits/Problems:

  • Increased accountability - Public authority can't hide decisions they make.
  • Information that wasn't accessible to the public is now available.
  • Information may be withheld to protect various interests.(e.g. national security)
  • Public authority doesn't have to confirm/deny the existence of the info requested.
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Chapter 7 - ICT Crime

Methods to combat ICT Crime:

  • Physical Methods:
    • Security guards and employee passes
    • Location of equipment - e.g. keeping computers in locked rooms
    • Security cameras
    • Positioning screen and keyboards (to not reveal passwords entered)
    • Biometric (fingerprint/voice/iris)
  • Logical Methods:
    • Firewalls - Prevent unauthorised access to your network
    • Usernames and passwords (authentication)
    • Software patches/updates - Remove flaws in the software
    • Anti-virus software - Prevent viruses/spyware infecting the machine
    • Backup - making a copy of the data.
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Chapter 7 - ICT Crime

  • Access rights - Access is only granted to certain users
  • Auditing - Running programs to look at what has happened.
  • Encryption - Taking plain text and applying an algorithm to turn it into encrypted text, only someone with a key should be able to convert the encrypted text into plain text.
  • Educating of Users - e.g. How to keep passwords discrete.

How a network manager apply controls to passwords:

  • Using a min. no. of characters
  • Using a combination of numbers and letters.
  • Not using a word in the dictionary
  • Changing passwords regularly
  • Making the password impersonal.
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Chapter 7 - Networking

Networking - Linking together 2 or more computers to be bale to share files through a server.

  • Data can be shared.
  • Backup and virus checking can be controlled from a central location.
  • Users can communicate with email systems.
  • Peripherals (i.e. printers) can be shared by several workstations > reducing the cost.
  • Viruses can spread to the whole network if a single workstation was infected.
  • Initial Cost of network
  • All services a network provide become unavailable if network fails.
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Chapter 7 - Professional Bodies

Purpose of Professional Bodies (i.e. BCS):

  • To promote education and training - Ensure that skills required in industry is provided.
  • Set standards for the employees within the industry
  • Provide examinations
  • Provide publications and discussion papers on a variety of topics - keep up to date.
  • Hold conferences - to be current with new developments
  • Provide input into legislation and the industry.

Advantages and Disadvantages of belonging to a professional body:

  • Career Recognition - Gives an accredited qualification.
  • Networking
  • Knowledge and Best Practice - Gives access to latest industry news.
  • Have to follow code of conduct.
  • Cost implication
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Chapter 7 - Health Problems

Health Risks:

 1) Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): Blood clot, usually in the leg.

  • Cause: Sittiing in a chair that puts pressure on the back of the knees.
  • Prevention: Stand up and move around & ensure correct posture when sitting.

2) Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI): Chronic pain experienced in the arms, shoulder or back.

  • Cause: Repetitive actions, poor posure while working, maintaining a fixed forced position.
  • Prevention: Use correct workstation, keyboard rests, adjustable chairs and frequent breaks.

3) Carpel Tunnel Syndrome: Pressure on the median nerve in the wrist.

  • Cause: Repeating wrist movements such as typing.
  • Prevention: Avoid the repetitive actions and take frequent breaks.
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Chapter 7 - Health Problems

4) Ulnar Neuritis: Compression of the unlar nerve in the elbow.

  • Cause: Leaning on the elbow for prolonged periods of time.
  • Prevention: Use wrist rests, adjustable hight of chairs and correct desk height.

5) Eye Strain: Hazy vision, tired eyes.

  • Cause: Looking at the monitor for long periods of time, dehydration of the eyes.
  • Prevention: Take plenty of fluids and frequent breaks.

6) Back Pain/Ache: Muscle spasms.

  • Cause: Poor posture, sitting in the same position.
  • Prevention: Use correct posture and adjustable chair.
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Chapter 7 - Health Problems

7) Fatigue: Tiredness and lethargy

  • Cause: Continued periods of mental work.
  • Prevention: Take 5 min. breaks every hour.

7) Stress: State on mental strain.

  • Cause: Overwork or software/hardware not doing what you expect.
  • Prevention: Take 5 min. breaks every hour.
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Chapter 7 - Safety Problems

Safety Risks:

1) Trailing Wires - Wires from computers trailing from desks and along floors.

  • Prevention - Cable mangements systems to cover wires.

2) Fire - Overheating of computers/Overloading of plug sockets can cause fires.

  • Prevention - Adequate ventilation, not overloading plug sockets, using correct type of fire extinguisher.

3) Electric Shock - Water and electricity/bare wires when touched can cause an electric shock.

  • Prevention - No drinking near computers, No water near computers and all wires to be frequently checked and repaired.
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Chapter 7 - Safety Problems

4) Unstable surface and chairs - Desks and surfaces that wobble can cause computer equipment to fall off.

  • Prevention - All surface to be stable.

5) Food and Drink - Liquids can cause shorting and lead to fire, crumbs from food are a fire hazard.

  • Prevention - No eating and drinking near computers.
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Chapter 7 - Impact of ICT on Society

Shopping:

  • Availability - A website is open 24/7.
  • Location - You can still buy online no matter where you are in the world.
  • Currency - If you possess a credit/debit card then the conversion is automatic.
  • There are price comparison sites to get you the best deal - Useful for disabled/elderly
  • Delivery firms benefit from the increase in posted goods.
  • Companies with an online premise don't have to maintain premises and large no. of staff.
  • There are websites that are not genuine - You may never receive the product.
  • You need to be at home when the item is delivered.
  • You need a computer/internet connection > Expensive.
  • People can become lazy and unhealthy - Shop without leaving home > reduce amount of exercise > unhealthy lifestyle
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Chapter 7 - Impact of ICT on Society

Medicine:

  • Impact on Administration:
    • Use of computers enables staff to access medical information and latest research.
    • Allows staff to monitor patients more effectively.
  • Impact on Treatment:
    • Helps people with hearing and sight disabilities.
    • Improved manufacture of artifical components (e.g. limbs).
  • ICT made it easier to share research - Universities can pool their findings and collab. more effectively.
  • Medical websites provide information on medical conditions, but it can be misleading.
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Chapter 7 - Impact of ICT on Society

Education:

  • Impact on Administration:
    • Electronic registration - Allows schools to immediately contact parents if their child is absent.
    • Details on students (e.g. grades) can be stored and acessed.
    • Monitor performance.
  • Impact on Students:
    • Wide range of information can be found on the internet.
    • Computers allows the write up and sharing of work.
    • Allows students to access work from home.
  • Impact on Teachers:
    • Virtual learning environments (VLE) allow teachers to structure topics and provide all teaching materials.
    • Helps prepare presentation material with handouts.
  • Plagarism and submission of ready-made material.
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Chapter 7 - Impact of ICT on Organisations

  • Increased employment - Organisations have to employ people (e.g. technicians and website designers) to install and maintain ICT equipment.
  • Benefting from electronic filing systems - Organisations can edit a document rather than retype it everytime it's needed.
  • Increased communication - Email, fax and video conferencing made it easier to get in touch with people.
  • New departments and directors have been created with the advent of ICT - Network managers and ICT directors have all had to been incorporated in the organisational structure.
  • Teleworking:
    • Employees can spend some or all of their time working from home (so less commute to work > lower costs & economic effects), and also allow individuals to set up successful home-based companies.
    • Lack of motivation
    • Lack of social contact
    • Additional equipment is required - e.g. high speed internet connection
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Chapter 7 - Impact of ICT on Individuals

Communication:

  • Social Networking
  • Video conferencing
  • Negative Effect on Health - Lack of exercise.

Travel:

  • Satellite Navigation help with travel arrangements and find their way to their destination.
  • Fewer people know how to read a map
  • Sat-Nav's are sometimes inaccurate.
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Chapter 7 - Future Developments in ICT

Transport:

  • Advanced Engine Management Systems (Environmental Impact):
    • The driver won't be able to control the car directly and instead the driver demand for speed or braking are input into the computer controlled systems. The computer controls the car so it safely speeds up/down using as little fuel as possible.
  • Introduction of Crash Avoidance Systems (Safety Impact):
    • These systems will sense an approaching accident then apply the breaks automatically as well as warning the driver of danger.
  • Biometic Passports and Databases (Security Impact):
    • In the UK, all new passports are 'ePassports' which contain biometric data and a history of your travels held in an embedded microchip > Improves security since journeys are tracked.
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