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Page 1

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Chapter notes and key terms AS ICT

Chapter 1:
Data, information, knowledge and processing

Data information knowledge

Data is made up of alpha numeric characters
Information = data + structure +context + meaning
Knowledge is the application and use of information

Representation methods

Text (writing)
Graphics (pictures)
Sound (voice)

Page 2

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Validation and verification-neither can ensure accuracy of data

Validation ensures that the entered data is reasonable, complete, sensible and within
acceptable boundaries this is achieved by:
Range check, type check, presence check, lookup check, check digit, length check,
and picture check
Verification ensures that the source and object are the…

Page 3

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Input, output and storage devices

Input: getting data external to the system into the system
Eg: keyboard, mouse, graphics tablet, scanner, digitiser, microphone etc

Output: getting data within the system out of the system
Eg: printer, plotter, monitor, speakers etc

Storage: holding/storing data
Eg: internal and external hard drives, CD/DVD,…

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Standard application/generic software

Word processing; letters, memos, reports
Desktop publishing (DTP): flyers, brochures, posters
Spreadsheet: graphs, modelling data- mathematical and objects forecasting
Database: handling data- searching and sorting
Web authoring: producing web pages
Presentation: creating slides- acetates or electronic


Personnel, stock control, invoicing, booking, timetabling, route finding, training.


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Used to model objects; virtual presentation, use of layers, questions can be asked
Used for financial modelling: based on functions and formulae, variables and
constants can be used, `what-if?' questions can be asked

Variables, formulae, rules and functions

In a spreadsheet:
A variable is an identifier associated with a particular…

Page 6

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Primary key-single field, unique identifier for the record
Composite primary key- where two or more fields joined together to make a
unique identifier for the record
Foreign key- primary key in one table, field in another table, used to join
tables together
Secondary key-used to index a field



Page 7

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Problems with historic calculations

Data dictionary

Database about a database
Contains design details about the database
Includes table name, field name, data type, length, validation, relationships, security

Data types

Text/string: anything not requiring a calculation
Integer: whole numbers only, not telephone number
Real: numbers and decimal places
Boolean: one of…

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Create template document
Insert merge fields from data source
Checks merge fields with data
Complete merge.

Formatting documents

Page size, settings and orientation
Text position, size and style

Images and graphics

Bitmap images:
Made up of pixels
Quality is lost on re-sizing
File sizes very large
Deal well with complex…

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Computer and projector

Presentation navigation methods

Manual and automatic

Structure of a presentation


Chapter 7:
The role and impact of ICT

Data protection act

1. Right to subject access
2. Right to prevent processing for direct marketing
3. Right to prevent if likely to cause distress or damage…

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Describe methods for combating ICT crimes

Locked rooms
Biometric (fingerprint, iris scanner etc.)
Passwords-(minimum amount of characters/alphanumeric/change regularly)
User IDs
Up-to-date software
Education of users

Understand the advantages and disadvantages of networking computers

Work sharing
Resource sharing
Dovi Richman ICT AS





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