AQA ICT INFO 2 - LIVING IN THE DIGITAL WORLD

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1 ICT SYSTEMS AND THEIR COMPONENTS
1.1 WHAT IS ICT?
Information Communication Technology is the use of technology for the input,
processing, storage, and transfer of data and the output of information; for example,
traditional computers doing tasks such as sales processing by entering sales data to
produce output information such as an invoice.
1.2 WHAT IS A SYSTEM?
Any activity that involves the capture of data as input, the processing of data into
information and the production of information as output.
1.3 INPUT, PROCESSING AND OUTPUT (IPO)
Input
Input is the capturing of Data. Data is input through an input device such as a keyboard.
Processing
Processing is converting data into information. Calculations, queries and other operations
are performed during the process stage.
Output
Output is information produced. The results of processing are sent to an output device
such as a monitor.
For example; photos from digital camera is transferred to the computer
1.4 WHAT IS AN ICT SYSTEM?
An ICT system is a system where the output from the systems goes directly to a human
being or into another ICT system. They are designed for and used by people and are
commissioned for a particular purpose.
1.5 HOW AND WHY WE USE ICT SYSTEMS?
Most modern organisations use ICT systems to help them fulfil their goals, but the exact
purpose of the ICT system depends on what those goals are.
It is commonplace for many organisations to use ICT systems to produce information
that would traditionally have been produced by paper-based systems. This might include
receipts, invoices, sales, reports and wage slips.
.

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WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF AN ICT SYSTEM?
The following are the components of an ICT system
1. People
They are involved at every stage of a development, with no ICT system able to function
with the input of human interaction. Large organisations split work up between
departments. These include sales, purchasing, finance and operations, with all levels
using a form of ICT system.
2. Data
Data is raw facts and figures or set of values.…read more

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DATA AND INFORMATION
2.1 WHAT IS DATA?
Data represents raw facts and figures or a set of values. A set of data might consist of
2, 4, 3, 5, and 6. Another familiar set might be data collected from examination results,
such as 23, 45, 67, 98 and 78. Data itself has no meaning; however, it can be input to a
computer to be processed into information.
2.…read more

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Disadvantage of Coding Data
When data is coded it loses some of its accuracy and it can be difficult to remember the
codes.
Encoding
Encoding is used by computers to convert data into machine readable form. All
computers understand is binary, 1s and 0s, therefore in order for people to use
computers, the data they use must be encoded into binary for a computer to process
and share. A way of encoding text is by using ASCII to represent each character as a
binary number.…read more

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QUALITY OF INFORMATION
What makes information valuable?
1. Accuracy ­ Decisions, often important ones, are made when certain information
is considered, so inaccurate information will mean key decisions may be made
wrongly. It is very important that information is accurate. Organisations need
accurate information to remain in the business. Thorough error checking must
take place and regular updates must be applied if the information is to remain
accurate.
2.…read more

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PEOPLE AND ICT SYSTEMS
3.1 ICT SYSTEMS: DESIGN AND PURPOSE
The systems that are used by organisations have been designed to be used by people and
commissioned for a particular purpose. It is important to appreciate that different users
have different needs. The client, end user and audience may all have slightly different
requirements from the system, and each of their requirements needs to be considered.
3.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF USERS
The interaction may be affected by such factors as
1.…read more

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A graphic artist with a graphics tablet to better mimic
movements of drawing aids.
5. Age - Older users react more slowly to younger ones, and so the ability to adjust the
speed of cursor movement and the rate at which they to double click an icon can
make a large difference to their confidence.
3.3 HOW USERS INTERACT WITH ICT SYSTEMS
Users interact with ICT systems through the hardware and software components of the
user interface.…read more

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It does not make a heavy demand on system resources or memory. They
can be quicker than graphical interfaces for expert users.…read more

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IT Project Manager: IT project managers oversee the development of computer
systems to meet a client's business needs, making sure that projects are
completed on time and within budget.
Computer Game Developer: Produce games for PCs, games consoles, the
internet and mobile phones.
IT Security Coordinator: Plan and carry out security measures to protect clients'
information and data from unauthorised access, deliberate attack, theft and
corruption.
IT Support Technician: Help to find and correct software and hardware problems
for computer users.…read more

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Teamwork ­ few ICT projects are completed by a single individual and so
teamwork skills are vital.
Characteristics of an Effective Team:
The team leader must ensure that the team members work together in an
organised ad effective manner to ensure deadlines are met.
An appropriate structure must be in place to ensure that the standard practices
of the organisation are followed.…read more

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