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The Inter-War Years, 1919­1939
What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
Clemenceau Lloyd George Woodrow Wilson
Realist Realist Idealist
Punish Germany with a A compromise between Fair peace and no war
very harsh treaty Clemenceau and Wilson
Weaken its military so its Punish Germany for…

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Colonies made mandates of the League of Nations to be looked after by France (Cameroons),
Britain (German East Africa), Australia (New Guinea), New Zealand (Samoa), Japan (Marshall,
Mariana and Caroline Islands), and Togoland run by both Britain and France. German South West
Africa went to South Africa.
4. Germany's armed…

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Germany was enraged as Britain and France gained Turkish and German territories in Africa and
the Middle East while its economy and pride suffered at the loss of:
10% of its land:
All of its overseas colonies
12.5% of its population
16% of its coalfields (Saar) and almost half of…

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This treaty was mainly about sorting out the chaotic jumble of eastern borders rather than
punishing Austria. Austria suffered severe economic problems as much of its industry went to
Czechoslovakia. Italy was unhappy with the little amount of land it got.

2. Treaty of Nueilly, 1919 ­ dealt with Bulgaria…

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At the time, however, the majority outside Germany felt it was fair, if not too generous. German
complaints about the Treaty were ignored as people felt they were operating a `double standard'.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk 1918 that Germans gave to Russia was much harsher that the Treaty of

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Vilna 1920: Poland invaded Lithuania's largely polish populated capital so Lithuania appealed to
the League. The League's condemned Poland, but it didn't listen. Did nothing.
Polish-Soviet War 1920-1921: Poland invaded Russian land, as the borders were unclear, and
won at Battle of Warsaw. Russia had to sign the Treaty…

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The Health Commission

Weaknesses in the structure

Set up by the unfair Treaty of Versailles (which every nation hated and heavily criticised).
Its aims were too ambitious
That Germany, Russia and the USA were not members
It had no army
Its organisation was cumbersome
Decisions had to be unanimous.


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the international co-operation ideal of League of Nations. The leaders of the League were
subjective in their decisions, which reduced the League's power, respect and reputation.
Foreign Policies: Many countries were now dictatorships with very aggressive, nationalistic
foreign policies. Countries were looking to expand their empires and had little interest…

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24 Feb 1933, the report was approved by 42 votes to 1 (Japan itself) in the Assembly.
27 March 1933, Japan resigned from the League and the next week invaded Jehol.
The League was powerless. It failed because:
They were too slow to take action.
Economic sanctions would be meaningless…

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Economic sanctions were meaningless without the US, and some of them were put into
action too late e.g. oil
Self-interest: The Suez Canal was not closed down, as Britain and France wanted to keep
good relations with Italy for its support against Hitler.
No army: Britain and France would not…


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