The Cold War (International Relations) Section 5 - edexcel

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1948-49: Tensions in Berlin ­ `The Berlin Blockade'
- Bizonia was created as the US and GB zone became united.
- Trizonia was created with the joining of the French zone.
- The USSR saw this as the US trying to divide richer Germany from poor.
- They established a new currency: Deutschmark
- They also established a new government.
What did Stalin do?
- Most food supplies were grown in East Germany.
- Berlin was deep in USSR control.
- Stalin cut off all supplies to Berlin with a blockade ­ so, the western government couldn't take
- West Germany wouldn't last long without food ­ many thought Trizonia would have to pull out.
What did Truman do?
- Truman responded with airlift ­ thousands of tonnes of supplies were flown into Berlin.
- The USA looked peaceful, whereas the USSR looked arrogant ­ a huge propaganda loss for Stalin.
- NATO: a military alliance between the USA and Western European countries, in 1949.
- The Warsaw Pact: a Soviet military alliance, in 1955.
Soviet Control in Hungary: The Hungarian Uprising 1956
- Stalin died in 1953 ­ a turning point: `Destalinisation'.
- Rakosi was a `bald butcher' ­ a brutal leader; he imprisoned 387,000 Hungarians.
- Hungarian production was sent straight to Russia.
- Hungarian land was given to other countries.
- Communist rule became very unpopular.
- 1956: In a secret speech, Khrushchev *hints* at relaxation of communist rule.
- Imre Nagy was appointed leader of Hungary ­ he wanted reforms:
> Leave the Warsaw Pact
> UN protection for Hungary from USSR
> Free elections and democracy
- Khrushchev refused these reforms ­ if Hungary left the Warsaw Pact, other countries would soon
- In 1956, Khrushchev ordered 200,000 troops into Hungary; 20,000 Hungarians were killed.
- Nagy sought refuge in the Yugoslavian embassy.
- In 1958, Nagy was given trial, convicted of treason, arrested and executed.
- A new leader, Janos Kadar was introduced to Hungary, and Soviet control over Eastern Europe
How did the USA respond?

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Eisenhower gave $20m worth food aid and medical supplies.
- He praised Hungarians for their bravery.
- The US didn't send military troops, it would result in nuclear war.
A divided Berlin
- Because Berlin was deep inside the Eastern Bloc, it gave the US a foothold in East Germany.
- There were better jobs with higher wages in West Germany.
- East Germans migrated to the West.
- This was easy ­ they only had to reach the Western occupied part of Berlin.…read more

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Divide Soviet Berlin from Western Berlin.
- Any East Berliners trying to escape were shot at.
- Solved problem of migration of East Germans.
- Khrushchev: looked stronger, although aggressive.
- Kennedy: looked more peaceful.
Berlin Wall: a symbol of division in the Cold War.
- JFK visited Berlin in 1963, and West Germany became a symbol of freedom.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
- Cuba had a Socialist Revolution in 1959.
- Fidel Castro confiscated all American property.…read more

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> Attack?
> Ignore?
Hawks: military generals, wanted to attack, start a nuclear war.
Doves: wanted diplomatic strategies, avoid war.
The Thirteen Days: a period where the world became very close to nuclear war.
- 16th Oct 1962: US spy planes photograph missile bases in Cuba.
- 20th Oct 1962: JFK orders a naval blockade of Cuba.
- 24th Oct 1962: Khrushchev says he will ignore the blockade, and fire if need be.
- 25th Oct 1962: Countries prepare for nuclear war.…read more

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Jan 1968: Dubcek = Czech leader (good friend of Soviet leader Brezhnev)
- Wanted `socialism with a human face'.
- Communist, but wanted communism to be easier to live under.
- Reforms `Prague Spring' ­ April 1968, increased political freedom ­ lots of critique
towards communism.
- Reforms meant freedom of censorship, democracy allowed other parties, power given to
Czech parliament, Soviet influence reduced.
How did Brezhnev respond?
- Couldn't allow the reforms, any weakness in control = breakup of Warsaw Pact.…read more


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