Origins of Cold War
-Capitalism (West) - government with free elections
- free industry and trade with concept of profit
-Communism (East) - one party dictatorship
-Both East and West feared the others policies and concepts
- Grand Alliance 1941 - USSR, UK + USA defeat Hitler.
Tehran 28 Nov - 1 Dec 1943
-Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill.
- Make plan reconstruction Europe after WW2
- UK,USA,USSR each have sphere of influence
-Germanys future not agreed.
- Stalin disagree Churchill + FDR - reperations
Yalta 4-11 Feb 1945
Churchill - prime minister of Britian
Stalin - Leader of USSR
Roosevelt - president of USA
- Stalin help USA defeat Japan once Hitler defeated
- Communist gov Poland.
- Declaration Liberated Europe - work for democracy in Europe.
- UN - maintain peace
- USSR sphere restated.
- Stalin, Atlee, Truman
-Final meeting big 3
- Ban Nazi party
- Surviving Nazi trials
- Reduce size Germany 1/4
- 4 zones
- USSR want reperations
- USA had atomic bomb, bossed meeting.
- Stalin want buffer zone
-Stalin broke word Communist gov in Poland having Communist + Capitalist gov, just Communist.
Truman Doctrine 1947
-Speech made by president Truman declaring that any country who asked for financial or military assistance to suppress the communist purge would be given it by the USA
-USA responsibility fight for liberty where threatened.
-Communism not allowed grow, gain territory.
- USA not UN responsibility protect world
-Divided world to ideology.
-Unofficial end Grand Alliance - beginning Cold War
-Containment beating communism with military force
Marshall Plan 1947
-Give financial assistance and recovery aid to those countries devastated by war
- $13 billion was given in aid to 16 countries including; Britian, France, West Germany, Italy and Greece rebuild economies.
- Had trade freely with USA - boost economy
- This made the communist influence in these countries decrease
- Marshall plan + containment = 2 halves same walnut
-Paris Conference 1948 discuss Marshall aid - USSR walked out, thought 1st step create military alliance used for war on USSR.
- Caused Comecon 1949
-Stalin thought Marshall plan "dollar imperialism"
-Communist information bureau
-extend Stalin control
- represent communist parties across Europe, under direction USSR
- first Cominform conference - reject Marshall plan
- communist parties encouraged organise strikes + demonstrations against USA plan.
- Ensured loyalty east euro govs - investigate ministers + employees, remove those not loyal to Stalin eg Hungary 5% population prison by 1953
- Join UK + USA zones --> Trizonia France joined
-Create German constitution + currency
-Stalin oppose division, not want USA further influence over Germany
- Didnt want USA troops remain stationed Germany
-Realised most valuable resources in West Germany - used start war with USSR.
- so created Berlin Blockade
Berlin Blockade June 1948- May 1949
- West Berlin blocked from West Germany.
- prevent establishment of separate state in West Germany.
- Stalin play, cut West Germany off from capital, so new gov not control territory in West Germany - prove divided Germany not work.
- Truman respond Berlin Airlift.
- Trumans generals advised Truman to ignore the blockade and drive the tanks through it
-decided that an airlift was the best option because didn't want to risk starting war and Stalin wouldn't shoot down his planes
-Everything from food, coal, and medicine was flown in with an average at the peak time of 8,000 tonnes a day in 1949
-West FDR created SEP 1949, East GDR created month later
The Arms / Space Race
To Try and intimidate one another the USA and the USSR spent billions of government funds on trying to improve weapons and military technology
-1945 USA invent Atomic Bomb - 1949 USSR caught up, 1953 both countries had hydrogen bombs
- The USSR made one of the most major steps in 1957 by developing the ICBM, a long range missile capable of travelling around the world in a couple of minutes in orbit and couldn't be stopped.
- The USA's responce to this was to develop medium range missiles that could be fired from submarines, Polaris Missiles, in 1959
- This continued until both sides were capable of destroying the world hundreds of times over but yet they kept on stockpiling weapons just to intimidate the other
- Nuclear testing was eventually banned by the nuclear test ban treaty in 1963.
NATO and Warsaw Pact
NATO - 1949 Warsaw Pact 1955
North Atlantic Treaty Organization- a group of western allied countries teamed together to vow to protects one another in case of invasion.
- countries who signed up included : Britain, France, Italy, West Germany, and The US
This action angered The USSR so in response Khrushchev, new soviet leader, created the Warsaw Pact in 1955 Described as a defensive alliance of communist countries
The Hungarian Uprising 1956
- Desalinization inspired hope into people
- USSR claimed liberated Hungary from Nazis - imposed Cominform on them
- Hungarian land redistributed other Eastern European countries.
- Hungarian coal, oil wheat shipped Russia, Hungarians deprived food.
- Non-communist parties abolished
- Russian officials control gov, police, army - execute popular political parties +supporters
- Rakosi appointed dictator 1949-56
-Krushchev appoint Nagy leader Hungary
- Hungary should leave Warsaw pact
- Communist gov end
-Western style democracy
-ask UN for protection from Russia
- Krushchev get report widespread discontent communism, if Hungary left Warsaw pact others follow
- November 1956 invaded Hungary Nagy gov defeated
-Nagy trialled, executed June 1958
-USA encouraged uprising didnt offer military support - prevent war. did offer $20 million food + medical aid showed Truman Doctrine not include military support. UN condemned invasion
- New leader Hungary
- re-establish communist control
- Used Hungarian forces stop attacks soviet forces
- Remain in Warsaw Pact
- Negotiate withdrawal Soviet troops once crisis over.
- Refugee problem, East gov unpopular, West offered greater freedom + wealth
- Krushchev declare all Berlin belong East Germany, ultimatum
- Eisenhower not know how respond, not want war / lose Berlin - set up meeting
- Geneva Summer 1959 - no solution, but meet again
- Camp David September 1959 no solution another summit + ultimatum dropped.
- Paris May 1960 U2 incident. Eisenhower refused apologize, Krushchev walked out.
-JFK set up Vienna conference June 1961, neither side backed down, ultimatum put back.
-JFK prepare war $3.2 billion extra defence spending, $207 million fallout shelters.
Berlin Wall 12th August 1961
-Krushchav knew USSR never win nuclear war, USA 20X missiles, could reach USSR.
-night of 13 Aug barbed wire mesh armed with machine gunners was erected around west berlin and gradually grew into a huge wall keeping East Berliners out of West Berlin.
- "not a very nice solution but hell of a lot better than a war"
- Stopped east germans esacping to west, stopped refugee problems
- allow Krushchev avoid war, still look strong
- powerful symbol division of Germany + Europe
- Kennedy tour Berlin 1663 - express feelings solidarity with people. " i am Berliner "
Cuban Missile Crisis Oct 1962
-The capitalist dictator Batista was overthrown be the supporters of Fidel Castro, USA property taken over by new gov
-US refused to trade with Cuba, this led to Castro turning to the USSR and asking for alliance in turn for trade, USSR helped Cuba industrialise.
- Cuba 90 miles from USA
-April 1961 with help from the CIA supporters of Batista landed on the bay of pigs. This was a massive failure as they were quickly defeated and received little support
-June 1962 shipments of "defensive" weapons were shipped in from the soviet union however U2 spy planes photographed medium range offensive missiles capable of reaching most of the major US cities.
-Caused 13 days
13 Days 16-28 Oct 1962
20 Oct-Place a naval blockade around Cuba searching all entering ships, stop further missiles
22Oct- Kennedy give public address declaring blockade, calling Khrushchev withdraw ships.
23 Oct- Khrushchev send letter saying ships break blockade
24Oct- Khrushchev, statement- USSR prepared launch nuclear missile if war
25Oct- Forces highest level alert, JFK write Krushchev asking withdraw missiles
26Oct- Khrushchev respond - will withdraw, if US never invade Cuba
27th Oct- Krushchev intelligence USA preparing invade Cuba in 24hrs propose deal - USSR withdraw missiles if USA never invade and remove turkey missiles. JFK brother accepts deal if withdrawal from Turkey secret.
28Oct - Khrushchev accept deal
Consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis
Immediate -Hotline June 1963 , quick response for leaders, not letters
- Limited test ban treaty August 1963 no testing nuclear missiles in space, sea or above ground.
- Highlighted fragility of relationship between powers.
- Detente set up
- Reduction Krushchev authority
Long term - USSR caught up USA in arms race
- greater stability between powers.
- MAD mutually assured destruction - realisation that nuclear war would destroy both countries, gave powers excellent reason avoid war.
Prague Spring - liberal changes brought by Dubcek - Czech soviet state, communism few benefits. Country still run by secret police - brutally crushed oppisition, economy struggling, decline in standard of living.
- above reasons made Novotny- current party leader unpopular --> Jan 1958 Dubcek communist leader, friendly terms Breznev, Create a popular communism - "socialism with human face"
-Get rid of repressive aspects communist rule. revitalise politics,economy,social life - Relaxation press cencorship - Legalise oppisition groups - Tolerance political criticism - Power to regional Govs - Power given Czech gov -Market socialism .
- Reforms liked students, intellectuals, workers, young members communist party
- Disliked older communists - shocked , Breznev + other allies East Europe
Breznev Docterine + invasion
- Breznev regard Dubcek as friend, but reforms weakening Soviet control and lead to break up Easterm Block. Apr - July Breznev try persuade Dubcek reforms gone too far.
-Dubcek didnt take hint, Czech was invaded August 1968. Soviet media portrayed Czech massive threat to USSR + Breznev Docterine created
- "USSR had right to invade any country whose actions threatened whole of Eastern Block" Breznev actions undermine Warsaw Pact + communist control
- 20 Aug 1968 tanks rolled in, Czechs respond non violent civil disobedience.
- Duncek arrested, told broken betrayed socialism forced sign Moscow protocol-committed Czech protect socialism press cencorship + remove opposition back
- America - Breznev believe America do nothing, in war with Vietnam want avoid further military entanglement. America publicy condemned but no military support
- Western govs condemned it, no military help.
- Communist parties Italy + France declared themselves independent from Soviet party - made rival party Euro-communism in West. Showed extent Soviet communism lost all authority + support after invasion
- Yugoslavian + Romaniam gov distanced selves from USSR made alliances with China, other major communist power - again dividing communist world.
-relaxing of tensions between east and west. Extension of Khrushchevs policy of peaceful co-existance.
- Outer space treaty 1968 - stopped arms race spreading to outerspace - Nuclear non-proliferation treaty 1968 - neither power help/ supply nuclear weapons
-SALT 1 1972 - No further production strategic ballistic missiles, submarines carrying nuc weapons only intro when existing stocks ICMs obsolete. - First agreement limit number missiles showed detente, two powers could co operate
- Helsinki 1975 - greater co op between 2 powers, work together trade + terrorism created stable relationship. - Apollo-soyuz mission 1975 joint space mission, begin of super power co op in space
- Kabul revolution Apr 1978- communist revolution , royal family overthrown
- Taraki new president ally of USSR, muslim leaders angered by socialist reforms --> civil war gov + islamic fighters --> Amin became head army then Oct 1979 Amin supporters assassinate Taraki ---> Amin president
- Amin try deal with USA, USSR not trust him + thought muslim groups take over country make islamic state - not communist.
- Karmal said had enough support form new gov but need soviet help Amin army
- Believed USA tolerate invasion after Prague Spring
- Soviet troops killed Amin + supporters --> Karmal president, lasted 10 years 1.5 million died.
Carter Doctrine - USSR not be allowed gain territory in middle east.
- Formed alliance with China + Israel, supported Mujahideen.
- Economic sanctions - stopped all trade with USSR
- Ended diplomatic relations
- End of detente
- Withdrew from SALT 2 - would have reduced nuclear missiles to 2250 warheads each superpower, treaty never became law.
- Boycott Moscow games 1980 + 60 other coutries
- USSR Boycott LA games 1984 + 14 other communist countries
- Super powers at lowest since Cuban Missile Crisis
2nd Cold War
- 1979-1985 2nd cold war, new low super power relations
- Reagon new president 1981 no intention put detente back, thought was disaster, wanted win cold war and rejected peaceful co-existence. see limited nuclear war in Europe. Thought detente made USA look weak while USSR grow strong.
- French + Brit commentators thought unsuitable be president.
-Evil Empire speech March 1983 - fight between good and evil, US fought gods blessing. Cold war moral war, had moral duty defend liberty from evil USSR
Geneva + Reykjavik + Washington
Geneva Nov 1985 - Reagon in stronger position, fairly limited aims, Reagon want persuade Gorb wanted peace, Gorb want persuade Reag drop SDI
- Gorb want establish working relationship, sacked foreign minister Gromyko - shevardnadze in place, end of aggressive foreign policy - Geneva two leaders spoke face to face develop personal relationship, no formal agreement reached.
Reykjavik Oct 1986 Reagon want scrap ballistic missiles, Gorb unwilling agree as SDI not dropped.
-Washington Dec 1987 INF treaty signed - eliminate all missiles range 500-5500 km went further SALT 1 which only limited stock piles.
- Gorb signed as nuc weapons expensive, no extra security, Reag said never invade USSR, Soviet enconomy never recover with money spent on nuc weapons, disarmament win popularity in West make profitable trade, political + economic measure more effective than military in ensuring USSR security.
Gorb attitude to East Europe
- Ideology play smaller role in foreign affairs, no longer favour trade with communist.
- Gorb keen Eastern Euro take on Glasnost + perestroika
- Gorb withdrew troops from East Euro bases save money.
-Never intended weaken communism, once reform started unable contain it.
Reaction fall Berlin wall
- West liked Gorb for reforms as lead to break up eastern block
- Russia with suspicion as actions weakend communism, lead to coup by gang of 8 removing Gorb from power 19 Aug 1991.
- Prevented from returning to Moscow, new gov declared state emergency overturned glasnost + perestroika, want restore USSR + secure future communism
- Coup lasted 8 days, Yeltsin described new gov as illegal, organised protests asking people resist new regime.
- Gorb return to office 21 Aug, coup damaged authority - Yeltsin popular hero.
- Gorb final attempt introduce new constitution give soviet states like Lativa + Ukraine greater independence, but never accepted. lead to ...
- Gorb announcing end USSR and resigned - 25th Dc 1991, cold war over. USA now only super power, ended ideological battle, .
Break up Eastern Block
Poland June 1989 free elections were held after the increasing pressure from the people in Demonstrations, Communist gov defeated elections 1990
East Germany 1989 Thousands of people were fleeing East Germany through Hungary. Free elections declared, 9 Nov Berlin wall falls, communist defeated 1990
Czech + Slovakia Popular protests lead overthrow communist rule - Velvet revolution - Nov 1989
Hungary -communist gov promise new democ constitution in Summer 1989 free elect Spring 1990.
End Warsaw pact - All above rejecting communism pact no longer served purpose, military co op ended 1990 then Pact formally dissolved July 1991