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Edexcel GCSE History A: The
Making of the Modern World
Unit 1 Peace and War:
International Relations 1900-91…read more

Slide 2

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WAR…read more

Slide 3

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Key Features of Cold War
· Arms race ­ America had dominated the arms race during the 40s and
50s, and by 1961 had 20x as many nuclear missiles as
the USSR. They also had the CAPABILITIES to launch these weapons
across the Atlantic ocean to reach the USSR. Russia had much smaller
nuclear stockpiles and didn't have the launch capabilities. However they
desperately tried to keep up with the US
· Military alliances formed ­ e.g. NATO 1949, the Warsaw Pact
· Propaganda ­ justified government spending on defence, especially in
Russia whose economy was bankrupt and couldn't afford to be
developing atomic weaponry…read more

Slide 4

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3 Conferences
Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill
· Tehran 1943 ­ the war had not ended yet, but the leaders of the Allied
nations met to discuss what would happen to Europe at the end of WW2.
Agreed: USSR would have a sphere of influence, and Stalin agreed to help the
other Allies to fight Japan
Not agreed: what to do with GERMANY. Stalin wanted the Germans to pay a
huge fine called reparations payments, but the UK and USA wanted to rebuild
Germany, believing that if Germany prospered it wouldn't fall to communism and
would also make a good trading partner.
Soviet sphere of influence
An area in which communism would be respected ­ Stalin would use
this as a `buffer zone', i.e. the belt of communist states around Russia would
separate the USSR from and defend them against capitalism…read more

Slide 5

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3 Conferences
Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill
· Yalta 1945 ­ the leaders met again:
·Establish a communist government in Poland
·Set up the UN, an international body that aimed to achieve world peace
·Confirm the USSR's sphere of influence
·Split Germany into four zones, each occupied by an allied nation
·The nations agreed to work for democracy in order to liberate Europe,
however they had ideological differences on how this would work. Stalin
believed that a democratic nation must be a state-led, communist nation,
because then power was distributed equally among the classes. However
Roosevelt and Churchill believed that democracy involved free elections and
a choice of who to elect into power.…read more

Slide 6

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3 Conferences
Stalin, Truman and Attlee
· Potsdam 1945 ­ meeting for a final time
after Germany had surrendered, the `Big
Three' disagreed over the issue of
· The leaders agreed each nation could
take what they wanted from the
zone they occupied, knowing that
Stalin would take the most from his
zone because he was pretty keen on
taxing Germany. But Stalin complained
that his zone (East Germany) had much
less industry, so was entitled to 25% of
industrial equipment from West
Germany ­ occupied by France, the UK
and the USA.…read more

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