Histroy Edexcel Topics Peace and War: International Relations 1943-1991 (Topics 4, 5, 6)

GCSE history Edexcel topics 4,5,6
I got full marks in this exam using these cards. 


Section one - Strains in the Grand alliance & Tehr

Nov 1943 (Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt)
- Stalin was annoyed at US and UK because they delayed opening a second front (did in 1994 - d-day landings) Stalin convinces that they wanted USSR to be seriously damaged by German invader before they came to help.
- Warsaw uprising - AUG 1949 - Polish resistance organized an uprising against Germans. Soviet army reached the outskirts of city, but didn't help as the Poles were brutally crushed by Germans. The defeat left the poles defenseless against Soviet invasion/ occupation.
- Churchill was very against the revolution that happened in Russia and as secretary of state for war, he supported Bolshevik enemies. and he was very suspicious of Stalin's motives in E. Europe, he was convinces the troops would remain in the countries they liberated from Germans.
 Tehran Conference Nov 1943 (
Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt)
- Britain + US agreed to open up a second front.
- USSR was to wage war against Japan once Germany was defeated.- United Nations was to be set ip after the war.
- An area of Eastern Poland was added to the soviet union at the insistence of stalin. Borders movers along the Oder and Neisse river. 

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Section one - Yalta Conference

Feb 1945 - (Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin)
They agreed: 
- That E. Europe would be be a 'soviet sphere of influence'
- To allow countries that had been occupation of german army to have free elections to chose the gov they wanted. 
- To hunt down & try the Nazi War criminals in an international court of justice.
- To join the new United Nations Organization in order to maintain peace once the war had ended.  
They disagreed:
- Reparations: Stalin wanted a much higher amount then either Roosevelt or Churchill.
- About Poland: Stalin wants the polish/German border to be much further to the West than the Western allies. He also wanted a 'friendly' Polish gov so that his country would have some protection from Germany. The western powers feared that this would be a Soviet-controlled gov. SO, they persuaded Stalin to agree to allow free elections in Poland.

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Section 1 - The Potsdam Confrence

July 1945 - (Attlee, Truman, Stalin) 
They Agreed:  
- To demilitarize Germany.
- To split Germany and Berlin as previously agreed in Yalta)
- To reestablish  democracy in Germany including free elections, free press and freedom of speech.  
- That Germany had to pay reparations to the allies in equipment and material. Most would go to the USSR, as they had lost the most men. The soviet Union would be given 1/4 of the industrial goods made in the western zone return for food and coal from the Soviet zone. 
- To ban the Nazi party, Nazi's removed from power and important positions, Nazis were put on trial for war crimes at Nuremberg in 1946.
They Disagreed on: 
- What to do with Germany. Twenty million russians died in war and Stalin wanted massif compensation that would totally and permanently cripple Germany. Truman refused. He saw a revived Germany as a possible barrier to future Soviet expansion. Stalin wanted to disable Germany completely to protect the USSR against future threats. Truman didn't want Germany to be punished as it was in TOV in 1919.  
- About free elections. Truman wanted free elections in the countries of Eastern europe occupied by ussr troops. Stalin refused to submit to US pressure believing it an unwelcome interference. Truman was furious and began a 'get tough' policy against the USSR. 

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Section 1 - Superpower rivalry before 1945 & Sovie

- Bolshevik revolution in Russia in 1917.
- USA and Uk intervened with in the Russian civil war, giving arms and supplies to the groups in Russia who were fighting to over through Lenin and the Communists. 
- They had different ideologies, different economy, different beliefs.  
- Britain, France and the USA disliked Stalin even more in 39 when he signed the Nazi-Soviet pact. They feared Stalin wanted to seize part of neighboring Poland.  
Soviet Expansion  
Security - Ussr had been invaded from the west twice by Germany and had suffered huge casultie. Stalin wanted to create a zone of 'freindly' or better yet, soviet controlled states in E.Europe as a buffer against future invasion. 
Percentage Deal - Towards end of war stalin and Churchill had reached an understanding known as the percentage deal. Stalin believed that Churchill as was accepting the influence of the USSR in E.Europe.  e.f. Romania - 90% USSR other 10%. Greece = UK - 90% USSR 10%
Strategic importance of Poland - Stalin's safety was depend on a friendly Polish government. and in 1945, Stalin wanted to move Poland's frontier so that most of Poland was in the USSR. He also wanted a Communist gov in what would remain Poland. 
US, UK and France believed that Stalin's motives were political - the expansion of the Soviet empire and Communism throughout Europe. 

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Section 2 - How was Soviet control carried out? +

- Coalition government were set up in which the  communists shared power with other political parties.
- Backed by Stalin, the communists took over the civil service, media, security and defense.  
- Opposition leader were arrested or forced to flee.  
- Elections were held, but fixed to ensure support for communists.
- 'People's democracies' were set up.
HAPPENED IN: Bulgaria 44-45,  Poland 45-47 , Bulgaria 45-47, Czechoslovakia 47-48.
Yugoslavia's president, Tito,  had no intention of taking orders from Stalin and so expelled from Cominform and communist countries applied economic sanctions, to challenge stalin Tito accepted aid from west. 
Stalin believes he could only ensure the support of counties in E.Europe by setting up Soviet Controlled communist gov. Us pres, Truman said it was a blatant attempt by stalin to spread communism through europe.  
Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) Set up in 1947.
- Soviets response to the Truman doctrine. It was also introduces to ensure that the stated in E.E followed soviet aims in foreign policy and introduced Soviet Style economic polices such as collectivization of agricultural and state control of industry.
- USSR used this organization to purge any members that disagreed with Moscow. One notable example was Tito, he was expelled from COMINFORM in 48.  

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Section 2 - Comecon + Why did US actions increase

COMECON - The council for Mutual Assistance 1949 - soviet response to Marshall aid.
It was suppose to be a means by which the Soviet Union could finically support countries in E.E. In reality it was used to: - Control the economies of these states. - Give the Soviet Union access to their resources. - Encourage economic specialization within the soviet bloc. E.G. Czechoslovakia and E Germany were encouraged to focus on heavy industry. Romania, Hungary and Bulgaria specialized in the production of food and raw materials.
Why did US actions increase rivalry? 
1) Truman Doctrine: 1947 - US policy of containment. USA and especially Truman, believed that the USSR was trying to spread communism - first through eastern Europe's and then to the West and beyond. 
2) USA had atomic bomb and wanted to use this, together with their superior economic strength, to put pressure on USSR and prevent future expansion. 
3) Events in GRRECE. Ar Yalta it was agreed UK had influence in Greece. Since '44 there had been a civil war in Greece, with UK helping royalist gov against communists. - In 46 elections communists heavily defeated, so communists started a guerilla war. - UK had 40,000 troops in Greece as well as in Turkey as they to under threat from communists. - 1947 UK could no longer afford it so US stepped in to help. Sid in a speech in March 47 said he wanted to contain communism and that the world separated into 2 armed camps one free one not. 

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Section 2 - What were the consequences of the Trum

- Greek government able to defeat the communists. 
- The rivalry between the USA and USSE increased, Truman publicly stated that the works was divided into two ways of life; free and not unfree.
- The USA become committed to the policy of containment and became far more involved in European affairs
- USA decided on the Marshall Pan. Although an extremely generous act, it was motivated by the US self interest. The Americans wanted to create new markets for US goos 'America's business is business' 
- In 1947 Stalin set up Cominform to like communist parties in E.E and worldwide in common action.
Marshall Plan - Truman believed that in countries that had economic problems, unemployment and poverty they were likely to turn Communist. SO in june 1947 Us Secretary if State set it all going. 
- It was offered to war-torn european countries to help reequip their factories and revive agricultural and trade. - They gave money, equopment, goods, food, machinery. In return they would agree to buy US goods and allow US companies to invest capital in their industry. 
What were the results? 
By 1953 - US Had provided $17 bollion to help rebuild their economies and raise their standard of living. US machinery helped European factories to recover from effects of WW2. US advisers helped rebuild transport.- Stalin withdrew form it and pulled out e.e countries. Didn't want to show how weak the USSR really was economically AND didn't trust the USA. Accused the US of using the pan for its own selfish interests - to dominate EUROPE and boost US ECONOMY.
- Marshall invited countries to meet together and decide how to use aid. 16 set up the OEEC (Organization for European Economic Recovery) to put the plan in action. 

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Section 3 - Long term causes of the Berlin Crisis

In Berlin almost instantly there were differences between the East and the West they were:
- USSR ensured that the minority communist groups took control of their eastern zone. They tried, unsuccessfully to secure communist control of the Berlin City Council but the socialist majority, supported by the Western powers, resisted successfully. 
- West wanted to speed up the Economic recovery of Germany, which had been devastated by the war and was now facing serious shortage of food and fuel. The soviet union wanted opposite, to secure itself from future attack. It wanted to keep Germany weak and refused to allow its own zone to trade with the other three zones.
- Berlin was in the heart of the Soviet controlled East Germany. The western allies were allowed access to their sectors by road, rail, air and canal. However, Stalin did not want the allies inside Berlin, which was well within the soviet zone. He also realized that the affluent, capitalist way of life would be on show to the people of the East. 
- Western countries were determined to stay in Berlin where they could observe Soviet activities on the other side of the iron curtain.  

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Section 3 - Short term causes of the Berlin Crisis

January 1948 - The Us and British zones in Berlin and Germany merges into one economic unit known as Bizonia.
March 1948 -  Soviet representatives walked out of the Allies Control Commission complaining that the Western attitudes made it unworkable. The commission had been set up in 1945 to administer all the zones. 
April 1948 - The allied zones were included in Marshall Plan. Soviet troops began to hold up an search rail and traffic entering West Berlin.  
June 1948 -  The western powers announces plans to create a West German State and created a new currency, the Deutschmark, for their zone and west berlin. Stalin retaliated by making his owen currency, the Ostmark, in the soviet zone and East Berlin.
24 June 1948 - Stalin accused the West of interfering in the soviet zone. He cut of road, rail and canal traffic in the attempt to starve west berlin. Stalin was trying to force the allies to pull out of their sectors and abandon plans to separate development of the German Zones. 

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Section 3 - Key features of the Berlin airlift

- Truman was determined to stand up to the Soviets and show he was serious about containment. He saw Berlin as a test case. If the allies gave into Stalin on this issue, the western zones of Germany may be nest. Truman wanted Berlin to be symbol of freedom, behind the iron curtain. They could only get in supplies by air as the canal, rail and road so the allies decided to airlift food in, worried they may get shot down but no shots fired. 
-  Airlift began on 28 June 1948 and lasted for ten months. Biggest airlift in history. The pilots had a dangerous job as soviet planes flew across the sky and weather balloons were placed in awkward positions. As a warning to USSR Truman sent B-29 bombers, capable of carrying an atom bomb, to be sent to the UK. Reached its peak in 16 - 17 april 49 when 1398 flights landed nearly 13,000 tones of supplies in 24 hrs
- By september the planes were flying 4600 tones of supplies a day - though this was still not enough. USSR tried to persuade people to move to West Berlin only 3% took up their offer. Stalin hopes severe winter would stop airlift, relatively mild winter that year. 
- During the airlift West Berliners supplied with food, clothing, building materials, oil, although there were still great shortages and some left city. During this period there was a total of 275,000 flights with and average of 4000 tones of supplies a day.  - On 12 May 1949 Stalin called of the blockade. That evening Berliners put on evening dress and danced in the street.  

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Section 3 - What were the results of the Berlin cr

The crisis had 3 major effects:
- Greatly increased East-West rivalry.
- It confirmed the divisions of Germany and Berlin.
- It lead to the creation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)  
East-West rivalry: 
- Truman saw the crisis as a great victory. West Berlin had survived and stood up to the USSR. For Stalin it was a defeat and a humiliation, although this was not how it was portrayed to the soviet people.
Within a few days of end of crisis the Western Allies announced that their zone in Germany would join together to form the Federal German Republic or West Germany. Stalin's response was to run the Soviet Zone into the German Democratic Republic.
How did the developments in 49-55 increase the East-West rivalry? 
Cold war and east west rivalry speed up after Berlin Crisis with the formation of Nato (4 April 49) and The Warsaw Pact (14 May 1955).
NATO: The berlin crisis had confirmed Truman's commitment to containment in Europe and highlighted the soviet threat to western Europe. Western european states even joined together were no match for the USSR and needed the formal support of the US. In April 1949 The NATO was signed. Although a defensive alliance, NATO's main purpose was to prevent Soviet expansion. 

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Section 3 - Other developments 49 - 55

Other than the NATO and Warsaw Pact there were other developments which caused the rivalry to worsen: 
- '49 Chinese Communist Party led by Mao Zedong successfully seized power of china. US had developed domino theory. 
- This seemed to confirmed by the Korean War in 50 - 55. North Korea communist supported by USSR. South Korea Democratic, supported by USA. When North Korean forces invaded the South in '50. Truman saw his theory become a reality. 
- Anti communist hysteria gradually emerged in the USA and was encouraged by the actions of senator Joe McCarthy , who began accusing leading officials of being communist and possible spies. Many gov employees were found guilty of passing on secrets about the atom bomb,. 
- In 1948, earlier then expected, the USSR tested its first atomic bomb. The arms race began in earnest.  
Stalin's Death:  
- Died in 1953. There was no real change in soviet policy as no one figure immediately emerged as his successor. After a 2 year period, Nikita Khrushchev established himself as the new soviet leader. Within a year he had denounced Stalin's polices and began a policy of peaceful co-exsitence with the West. 

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Section 3 - The arms race 49 - 53

- Now that both countries had atomic bombs, they wanted more weapons bigger and new systems.
- Each side suspected that the other aimed to build up enough weapons to be able to make a 'first strike' which would prevent other side firing back.
- Stain was shocked in 1945 by news US had testes the atomic bomb. The USSR atomic bomb programme was transformed over next couple of years and scientists pay trebled. Truman shocked by USSR developing an atomic bomb ordered for a new bomb to be made - The H bomb and spending went up.  USSR to increased spending. RACE IS ON. In 53 the USSR tested an H-bomb only a few months after the first USA. 
- In 1949 US spending was- $13.5 billion and USSR - $13.4. IN 53 US spending - $49.6 Billion and USSR $25.5 billion.

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Section 4 - Hungary after the WW2 & Impact of USSR

- USSR invaded Hungary in 1944 as it drove Nazis out of Hungary back to Germany. Soviet troops stayed in Hungary after the war even though the Allied Control Commison for Hungary had bee set up to the run the country. it comprised of US, UK, and USSR people. However USSR most influential and was able to determine events in post-war Hungary.
- A new provisional gov set up and agreed to pay $300 million to USSR. Elections held in 47 with SmallHolders' Party gaining 57% and The communists only 17%. The head of soviet forces, Vo
roshliov, refused to allow the smallholders to establish a party so made a coalition gov with communists. 
IMPACT Of SOVIET CONTROL AND RAKOSI'S RULE: - 47 leaders of smallholders party and National Peasant party arrested, others fled due to pressure and control. New constitution build up called 'a republic of workers and working peasants; Rakosi emerged from communist party and became leader. 
- Secret police AVH were a feared part of life.
- Religous teachings in school attacked and removed with the leader of the Hungarian Catholic Church, Cardinal Mindszenty imprisoned for life.
- Hungarian economy controlled by COMECON. This body prevented trade with US and prevented the Marshall aid to come in.  
- Hungary was forced to trade with the USSR but they did not always receive a fair price for their goods.
-  Living standards to began to fall and in 1953 Hungary experienced its lowest agricultural output ever due to collective farming. Rakosi became increasingly unpopular. 

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Section 4 - Hungary after Stalin dies

When Stalin died, the new leader of the soviet union, Malenkov, did not favor Rakois, who was replaced with Imre Nagy. Shows control USSR had in Hungary. Many changes in USSR
:- MARCH 1953: Stalin dies
- MARCH 1953: Rakosi is replaced with Imre Nagy as prime minister.
- APRIL 1955: Nagy replaced by Rakosi as he is seen as too soft.
- MAY 1955: Warsaw Pact set up.
- FEBRUARY 1956: Krushchev's 'secret speech'
- JULY 1956: Rakosi forced from power on the orders of Moscow and succeeded by his close friend Erno Gero.
- OCTOBER 1956: Victims of Rakosi's purges were re-buried.
- 23 OCTOBER 1956: Students demonstrated in Budapest, capital of Hungary, demanding free elections, free press and withdrawal of soviet troops. Statue of Stalin was pulled down in Budapest and dragged through the streets.

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Section 4 - What were the key features of the Hung

- The hungarians were fighting to get free elections, free trade unions, freedom of worship, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, Hungary to become a neutral state and Hungary to develop trade links with the west and an end to the one party system
- Demonstartions began in October 1956, Krushchev sent tanks to Budapest to restore the peace on on 25 October the tanks opened fire and killed 12 people and wounding more than 100. On that day Gero was forced to resign and Kadar took over. The following day Nagy was restated as Prime Minister.
-  US sectary of State said 'You can count on us' Which Hungarian rebels took as they would come to help, which they had no intention of as it may start a war and he didn't want to be in a dispute during the forthcoming president electoral.
Nagy Rule:  
- Nagy released some political prisoners on 30 October including the leader of the Hungarian Catholic Church, Cardinal Mindszenty.
- Following day Nagy proposed reforms, most controversial was to leave the Warsaw Pact.  He went to UN and asked them to consider HUngarians disputes. He hoped to win there support so they would make the USSR go into negotiations. Poetical parties that were banned reformed. Coalition go formed on 3 nov
-  Krushchev didn't want to seem weak. Chinese president urged him to stand strong. SO on 4 NOV 200,000 USSR soviet troops and 6000 tanks.

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Section 4 - What were the results of the Hungarian

What were the key features of the Hungarian uprising CONTINUED? 
- Rebels no match for USSR so on 10 NOV ceasefire declared but still sporadic fighting until the middle of the 1975. UK and French forces landed in Suez canal and Israeli troops invaded Egypt through the Sinai Desert. Us keen for them to remove troops but it was a good diversion for Khrushchev. 
- Janos Kadar became new leader/ Nagy hid in Yugoslav embassy during fighting, offered free passage from Kadar but he broke his word and took Nagy to Romina where he was shot in 1958.

What were the results of the Hungarian uprising?
- Soviet troops killed at least 20,000 but they lost about 7000. 
- Krushcev able to keep control and new soviet backed leader, Kadar, was installed.
- About 200,000 Hungarians fled Hungary in the uprising, many came to Britain as political refugees. 
- USSR had maintained its empire and sent out warning to satellite states.  
- Kruschev policy of destalinastion began.
- Poland and Hunagary made only gradually reforms after 56. 

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Section 5 - What were the causes of the Berlin cri

Problems in East Germany: Berlin continued to cause a problem for the UK and USA even after Berlin airlift 1949. USSR wanted to remover the Allies from West Berlin because it was an area of capitalist prosperity and a symbol of the success of Western Europe within communist territory. Between 49-61 about 4 million East Germans fled to West  through Berlin. Berlin was a gap in the iron curtain and the USSR was keen to block this gap up. Furthermore, USSR claimed the USA and its allies used W.Berlin as a base for espionage. USSR argued that they needed to control movement and access into Berlin in order to combat W. espionage. Why did Berliners Flee E.Berlin? Because they were dissatisfied with economic and poltical conditions at home. The forced collectivization of agriculture and the end of private trading not popular with the people. Moreover there were shortages of goods which could be easily bought cheaply in West Berlin . Views of Eisenhower and Krushchev: in 1958 the USSR leader suggested that the four occupying powers should leave Berlin on order to make it a neutral city. Eisenhower seemed ready to negotiate did not want to risk a war over Berlin. Krushchev visit to the USA in 1959 seemed to be successful, and a summit conference was agreed to discuss Berlin and nuclear weapons. Krushchev and Eisenhower were set to meet in Paris on 14 May 1960. Nine days before the summit conference was due to open, USSR announced that it had shot down a US U-2 spy plane near the city Sverdlovsk. Pilot captured and put on trial. Krushchev demanded that all such flights stopped and US gave apology. Eisenhower prepared to stop flights but no apology. Bitter exchange at preliminary meeting

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Section 5 - What were the causes of the Berlin cri

meeting, which led to MR. K storming out first session. Eisenhower immediately cancelled his planned visit to USSR. Relations grew cooler. How did Krushchev challenge the USA? In 1955 W.Germany had joined NATO, and in '57 ihad joined the European Economic Community. Not only was W.Germany economically strong and growing stronger, seen by Krushchev as a military threat. USSR fear of another German invasion would not go away. Wanted to solve the problem of Berlin, Berlin was a 'fishbone stuck in his throat'. From Jan '61, number of refugees leaving East Berlin to West was more than 20,000 a month. Large number professional people and skilled workers, Drain of labour and economic output threatened to bring economic collapse to Germany. Krushchev wants to fix this so another summit set up with JFK . He thought he could use his experience to push JFK around, he failed to note that JFK had reinstated the Truman doctrine in his inauguration speech on 20 Jan 61. Vienna summit - June '61 Krushchev demanded west leave Berlin, he said he would make treat with E.Germany, which would end all occupation rights, including W. access to Berlin. Kennedy refused to withdraw forces and increased US spending by $3.5 Billion dollars the following month. July, Krushchev announced that the USSR would increase its defense budget by 30%. On 13 Aug 61, he closed the border between E and W Berlin and E German police placed barbed wire along the 50km line dividing the 2 sections. As day progressed, construction of a concrete wall began, was completed by the next day. The term 'iron curtain' was a metaphor but Berlin real. USA did nothing to stop the building of the wall. 

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Section 5 - What were the results of the Berlin Cr

Peace was maintained, but a price for German people. Families were split, and travel restrictions made it difficult for relatives to see one another. Germans also felt let down as broken the '49 agreement about the running of Berlin, and for all his bluster, Kennedy not gone to war. Krushchev interpreted the construction of the wall in two ways.
- He felt beaten Kennedy and was prepared to out-maneouvr Kennedy again. Flow of refugees stops, and economic crisis in E.Berlin was being slowly evaporated.
- He said the wall was, 'guarding the gates of a socialist paradise
Although he had failed to remover Allies, the crises ended and tension in Europe was eased. Wall become a symbol of the division in the world, and for berliners, it was a constant reminder that their country was still a tool of the superpowers. Kennedy visited W.Germany in 63. He made several speeches in some of its major cities, where he was met with huge cheering crowds. When he moved onto West Berlin he went on a 32 mile tour of the main streets, which was lined with an estimated 1.5 million people (out of a population of around 2.5 million so 60% of population). He spoke to crowd of 200,000 in the centre of the city, near the wall. Some east Berliners were listening on other side of wall and applauded him to. 'Today in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is Ich bin ein Berliner' 

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Section 6 - Cuba (ARMS RACE 50's-61)

in what ways did the arms race develop in the 1950's? By 1953 both the USA and the USSR possessed hydrogen bombs. Both countries continued to develop more powerful nuclear weapons. On 1 March 54, America tested its biggest H bomb yet equivalent to 15 million tones of TNT. Hope they would slow it down. But in '57 the situation changed with USSR launching Sputnik a satellite which could orbit the earth in 1hr and 30mins. US saw it as military threat. During the years, 57-59 the US increased its spendings on missiles by 20% and Eisenhower founded NASA. USA concerned that USSR was overtaking them in arms development. Therefore US expanded its training programe for scientists and engineers also US Air Force increases the number of B-52 bombers, and US navy equipped some of its submarines with nuclear weapons. US placed missile bases in EU. Due to increaser in technology, US&USSR could reduce their conventional weapons during 50S. Both superpowers thought the next war would be nuclear. USA by 1961 had an active military man power of 2,606,000 AND USSR had 3,800,000. By 61 baddd relations due to U-2 crisis, events in Berlin, Korean Wr, Hungarian uprising. Background to Cuban Missile Crisis?Took place over a few days in October 62, brought superpowers to the brink of nuclear war. Cuban revolution in 59 brought Fidel Castro to power, he ejected all US business and investment. US refused to buy their sugar even though they normally brought all of it so they looked to USSR for help, said they would buy sugar and also provide machinery, oil and technological assistance, and Castro said he leaned towards communism,. Krushchev wanted to challenge USA, he needed some success to deflect criticism of his failures within the USSR. 

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Section 6 - The Bay of Pigs, April 1961

- In Jan 61 USA broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba. Before the end of Eisenhower's presidency he sanctioned a scheme under which Cuban exiles (Men who left Cuba when Castro seized control from Batista)  living in US would be trained in preparation for an invasion of Cuba. When Kennedy succeeded him in Jan 61, he took up the challenge.- Aim of invasion was to remove Castro. Fully equipped exiles and CIA agents would create a national uprising against Castro.  Exiles trained by CIA. Whole operation has a budget of $45 milliom. Exiles called themselves La Brigada 2506, was 1,500 of them.
- 15 April 61 US bombs bombes part of the Cuban air force. 
- 16 April 61 Planned second wave of bombing called off. The remnants of the Cuban air force were able to regroup and fight the next day.
- 17 April 61 La Brigada 2506 landed at Bay of pigs and encountered forces of about 20,000 men from Castro's army.
- 19 April 61 Fighting stopped. About 100 of la brigada killed and 1,100 imprioned.
- December 62: La Brigada prisoners released after $35 million worth of food and medicines given to Cuba by organizations and ordinary people in US. 
Why did Bay of pigs invasion fail? CIA thought that the Cuban people would rise up against Castro and fight with the, but Castro was v. popular, also Castro knew they were coming as exiles had been over heard talking about plans in Miami. Also air support crucial and the US did not attack on 16. LB supple ships sunk by plans. Cuban ground forces superior in all respects, leadership, arms and organization.

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Section 6 - The Cuban Missile Crisis - Part 1

- End of  '61 Cuban leader declared his conversion to communism. USSR military advisers and combat units stationed on the island. Krushchev saw the move into Cuba as the spread of communism in Latin America. - He was concerned by the US having missile bases in Turkey and Italy and thus USSR having bases just 90 miles from the US, he could also claim that he was simple defending Cuba against another attack. - Krushchev continued to send military supplies to Cuba throughout 62, and in sep USSR began to instal ballistic missiles. He said there to defend Cuba. - All changed on 14 October 62 when US U2 spy plane took photos which showed that Soviet Intermediate Range Missile Bases were being built. It was estimated that the missiles would be operational by NOV. The Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles (IRBM) could have hit almost all US cities in under 30 mins so threat to US safety.
- Kennedy set up a committee of 12 advisors, one of them was his bro. Various options open to US bomb Cuba, Invade cuba, Blockade Cuba, Air strike, do nothing. As crisis mounted, certain military decisions were taken.
- Decided to place a naval blockade around Cuba (prevent USSR delivering military stuff) Blockade was to stretch 3300km around C. A fleet of polaris 
submarines was made ready for action and 156 ICBM's were made ready for combat. Air-force bombers were in the air on patrol and 100's of thousands of soldiers were placed on combat alert.
-  Kennedy informed Khru that the USSR convoy approaching Cuba would be stopped, if found to have offensive military equipment it would not be permitted to pass the blockade and would have to return to USSR.

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Section 6 - The Cuban Missile Crisis - Diary of ev

Diary of Events of Cuban Missile Crisis 1962:
22 October - Kennedy's television address.
24 October - 18 Soviet ships approaching Cuba turned around to avoid confrontation with the US bl
ockade (quarantine). Kennedy demanded the removal of all missiles in Cuba and failure to do so would lead to invasion of Cuba.
26 October - Khrus sent Kennedy a letter offering to remove the missiles is the US blockade was removed and a promise not to invade Cuba.  
27 October - Khrus sent a tougher letter. Offering to remove the missiles if US removed their missiles from Turkey, which they bordered, U2 spy plane shot down over Cuba by soviet missile. Crisis deepened. 
28 October - President Kennedy at the suggestion of his brother agreed to the 1st letter. He added if no positive response from USSR by 29th, he would invade Cuba. Krush accepted offer. USA agreed to remove missiles from Turkey but this would take place well after removal of Cuban Missiles. Well, they wanted 
Krushy to look like a total faliure didn't they? Leading Soviets were not impressed. 

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Section 6 - The Cuban Missile Crisis - What were t

- 'They went eyeball to eyeball, and krushchev blinked' Kruschev was humiliated and many USSR looked to remove hum. The leader of China criticized him for putting missiles on US and backing down. 
Khrushchev saw it as a victory because he had made sure the US had not invadeed and missiles were taken of of Turkey. He was sacked 2 years later.
- Superpowers realized that they had got too close to war and there was a great reduction of tension to ensure that the leaders had an easier way of communicating was set up, a telephone hotline. 
- Further improvements cane when the Partial Test Ban Treaty was signed in August 1963, which meant that they both agreed to stop testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. 
 - The Nuclear Non-proliferation treaty signed in 1968, which was designed to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. The countries signing agreed not to develop nuclear weapons.
- The idea  that the arms race had almost brought nuclear war pushed the superpowers to consider limitations and talks began in '69. These became known as the Strategic Arms limitations Treaty.
- Which became part of the policy of detente. USA sold grain to USSR following poor harvests in 63. However, there were some in Europe who had exception to Kennedy acting on his own in the crisis. There had been little consultation with other countries and in '66, France withdrew from the military side of NATO.

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Section 7 - Czechoslovakia: Prague spring 1968

Why was their opposition to soviet control? Standard of living general better than in other satellite states. Czech Gov. was obedient to USSR. However 60's opposition grew for several reasons
- Many remembered the actions of USSR in 47 with the brutal murder of sectary of state, Jan Masaryk. - Antonin Novotny had bee
n czech leader since 57, he was unpopular because he was a hardline communist who slavishly followed the USSR line and refused to introduce reform. He was also slow to follow Krushchev's de-stalinastion, especially slow to release political prisoners jailed under Stalin.
- Czechoslovakian economy was in serious decline in 60's. USSR forced them to produce r
aw materials, such as steel, for USSR economy. Yet Czech economy needed those raw goods. USSR stopped the Czech factories producing consumer goods. In 62-63 national income fell.
- Novotony's attempts at reforms after '65, known as the New Economic Model, was not successful, since they produced a surplus of consumer goods that few people could afford. Failure of economic reforms encouraged Czech's to demand greater democracy.
Change is a comin': - October 67 a number of reformers, including Alexander Dubcek and economist Ota Sik, challenged Novotny's leadership at a meeting of the Central committee of the communist Party. In December Dubcek invited Brezhnev, to Prague, B was surprised at the extent of opposition to Novotny, withheld his support from Novotny. 
- 5 January 1968, Novotny was replaced as first secretary of the communist party by Dubcek, a move supported by Brezhnev

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Section 7 - Czechoslovakia: Prague spring 1968 - S

- In march Novotny resigned as president of Czechoslovakia and was replaced with General Ludvik Svoboda, war hero whose name means 'freedom', supported by Dubcek reforms. Novotny had been removed from two of the most powerful positions in the country.
PRAGUE SPRING REFORMS: in the spring of 68. Czhecs called it 'socialism with a human face. Dubeck  was still a devoted communist, but wanted to win support for communist regime by removing its worst features, the reforms included. 
- Greater political freedom including freedom of speech and the abolition of press censorship. By March 68 newspapers were presenting uncensored discussions of political and social problems. The coverage of  news by the Czech radio and television became fuller. Corruption and bureaucratic delays were exposed by the media. Communist party leaders were 'grilled on live TV. 
- A ten year program for political change which would bring about democratic elections, a multi-party state and create a new form of democratic socialism. In other words, giving the people of the country more say in the running of the country. 
- The removal of travel restrictions and fresh contact with the West, such as trade with west Germany.
- A reduction in the powers of the secret police to imprison without trial. 

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Section 7 - Why did the USSR invade Czechoslovakia

Dubeck's reforms, however, encouraged opponents of communism and led to demands for even more radical reforms. E.g. in JUNE 68 the social democratic's began to form a separate party as a rival to the communist party. Around the same time, Ludvik Vaculik, a leading journalist, published a manifesto called the 2000 words. In it he called for Czech people to take the initiative and force even more reforms. 
USSR was suspicious of changes taken place in C for several reasons: 
- C was one of the most important countries in Warsaw pact, centrally placed and had the strongest industry.
- Breshnev worried C may leave the Warsaw pact, allowing NATO to come in. Outcome would split the Eastern bloc into 2 and advance NATO'S frontier by 700 km further east and would border USSR. 
- Also worried new ideas would spread to other Warsaw countries. B under pressure from Eastern Germany leader Walter Ulbricht and Polish leader Gomulka, to stop reforms in C. 
- USSR afraid that C will becoming closer to West Germany. Industrial relation between W.Germany and Czech was strengthening day by day. Eventually W.Germany might come to dominate the economy of Czech and other countries in E.Europe. Soviet invasion followed the build up of tension between warsaw pact countries and Czech Gov.

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Section 7 - Diary of events of leading up to sovie

June - Soviet tanks remained in Czechoslovakia after Warsaw Pact military exercise.
July - Brezhnev met with leaders of the Warsaw Pact counties in Warsaw. They shared his concerns over events in Prague. A few days later Brezhnev met with Dubcek. Dubcek agreed to not allow a new Social Democratic Party and to remain in Warsaw Pact. However, he insisted on going ahead with the reforms. USSR seemed reassured, tension eases.
3 August - Brezhnev and representatives from the Warsaw pact met with Dubcek in Bratislava and signed the 
Bratislava agreement declaring their faith in communism. Once again Brezhnev seems reassured. 
3 August - Tito (leader of Yugoslavia) who was distrusted by USSR, was given an enthusiastic reception in Czechoslovakia during a visit in late July. It seemed yet again that Dubcek was moving towards independence.
15 - 18 August - Three day meeting session of the Soviet Politburo to decide what action to take. Brezhnev spoke to Dubcek on the phone, shouting at him that his actions in Prague would bring down the Warsaw Pact,
20 August - The USSR invaded.  

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Section 7 - Key features & consequences of the USS

20 - 21 August - hundreds and thousands of soviet troops, backed from units from Bulgaria, E,Germany, Hungary and Poland entered Czechoslovakia. 
- Czech's throw petrol bombs at the soviet tanks that moved through Prague. Buildings set on fire and protesters assembled in Wenceslas Square. Barricades set up in streets. Students tore down street names to confuse the invaders. Some students even climbed up on tanks to argue with troops.  
- Anti soviet broadcasts stayed on the air by moving from one hiding place to another. However, there was no armed resistance by the Czech army and fewer than 100 died.
- Dubcek and other leaders arrested and taken to Moscow, where they were forced to accept the end of Czechoslovakian move towards democracy. Over the next few years, hard-line 
Czechoslovakian officials replaced the reforming Czechoslovakian leaders. 
CONSEQUENCES: In Czechoslovakia - Demonstrations against the USSR invasion went on until April 69. In January 62 a student, Jan Palach, set himself on fire in Wenceslas Square in protest
  against USSR invasion. Nevertheless the Czech gove was purged. Dubcek forced to resign. Under his replacement, Husak, Czech reverted to strict communist rule. Dubcek was sent as an ambassador to Turkey then forced to resign from the Czech communist party, not killed.  IN USSR - Gave rise to the Brezhenv doctrine. Redefined communism as a one party system and declared that all member countries and had to remain part of the Warsaw pact. Also sent message to Warsaw Pact that the USSR would suppress and attempt to relax communist control. CONTINUES

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Section 7 - Consequences of the USSR invasion.

WARSAW PACT - Some communist countries began to move away from Moscow. President Ceausescu of Romania refused to send troops to join the forces invading Czech and took an increasingly independent line against the USSR. Albania did the same and left the Warsaw pact for good in 68. The USSR did not react as preoccupied with Czechoslovakia.
COLD WAR - The soviet invasion temporally worsened relations between E and W. Western countries especially UK and USA, protested against the soviet action. However, the invasion did not ultimately not endanger the USSR-US relations, and Detente continued after a slight break. The USA was in the middle of a presidential election during 68 and was also pre-occupied with the Vietnam War. To a degree, the events in Czech took pressure off the US because many other countries in the WEST condemned the USSR. However, in another way, The war in Vietnam allowed the USSR to move into Czech with impunity because it knew that the US would do nothing. However, the invasion in Czechoslovakia did increase the rivalry between China and the USSR. China criticized the use of force against a fellow communist nation. The Chinese feared that the USSR might take some action against them. 

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Section 9 - How did Detente develop after the CMC?

- After the CMC there was a move to improve relations between the US and USSR because the threat of nuclear war had had a sobering effect on all concerned, and the attempts to maintain sound relations was evident in the 60's. 
- Hotline between the US and USSR improved speed of communication and the Test Ban Treaty showed a willingness to look at the issue of developing nuclear weapons.
- New leader of USSR, Brezhnev, had put forward his view of soviet foreign policy in the when he took over from Krushchev. He stated that if a  capitalist country threatened any communist country then other Communist states had to intervene by using force, by 68 it become known as the BREZHNEV DOCTRINE. 
The widening of the cold war: Continued in middle east. After Israeli victory in the six day war of 1967, Arab states were drawn more closely towards the USSR because the US had supplied the Israelis with so much military hardware. - Both US and USSR supplies arms to one sides, but actual relations between them did not ever reach those at the times of CMC. Nor did the invasion of Czechoslovakia in august '68 endanger relations. - In its quest to contain communism, US sent military advisers to South Vietnam in the 50's and had then sent troops in '65. War in Vietnam did not go well. Despite huge military effort could not defeat North Vietnamese and the Vietcong. By '68 the US was seeking to end the war, and peace talks began in spring of 68. After Nixon become president it was hoped that if the US improved trade and technology links and made an offer at arms reduction, the Brezhnev might persuade his North Vietnamese ally to negotiate end or war, idea called 'linkage' by Nixon's advisers. 

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Section 9 - SALT 1 May 1972

Nixion visted Moscow in '72 and he made it clear that he did not see Vietnam as an obstacle to the process of detente even though USSR supplying arms to north.
- Nixon visited China three months earlier and Brezhnev did not want to see a Chinese-US alliance develop. The USSR was keen to gain access to the US technology and further grain sells, so both US & USSR leaders had their own motives for seeking improved relations. 
- At the Meeting Nixon agreed to take part in the European Security Conference, from which emerged the Helsinki Agreements. 
-  Brezhnev played part of the intermediary between Washington and capital of North Vietnam, Hanoi, and peace between the US and North Vietnam signed in 1973. This was remarkable because only 11 years ago the superpowers hot almost gone to war themselves.    Early in Nixon's presidency, a decision was made to talk about nuclear weapons. The move to Detente and the idea of linkage, together with economic problems in USSR, made the idea to limit arms quite attractive


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Section 9 - SALT 1 MAY 72

.Talks held in Helsinki and Vienna over a period of almost 3 years produced the first accords (SALT 1) in May '72. SALT 1 was seen as the first step in long journey to reaching very positive goals, but the fact that strategic bombers were not limited and there was no restrictions on developing new weapons did disappoint those campaigning for a safer world and no restrictions on MIRV's (Multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles) (had explosive power of 25 times the bombs dropped on Hiroshima)
SALT I - Agreements: - Anti Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) - Allowed only 2 sites, each site containing only 100 missiles. Was seen by many as a key piece in nuclear arms control because it was a clear recognition of the need to protect thee nuclear balance by ensuring neither side could ever consider itself immune from retaliation. 
- Interim Agreement on Offensive Arms - this imposed a five-year freeze on the total number of ICBM and SLBM launchers. 
- Each side was allowed to use satellites to check that the other was nor breaking arms limited. 
The middle east and detente: Optimism put into test in october '73 during the Arab-Israeli war(Yom Kippur War) Syria and Egypt (armed by USSR) made surprise attacks on Israel (armed by US). After Israelis had recovered from the surprise attacks they regained initiative and were sent replacement military equipment on the orders of Nixon. 

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Section 9 - The middle east and detente continued.

-       Brezhnev put forward a plan - a joint USA-USSR force would be on hand to save the Egyptian army from the israelis, if Nixon refused, then USSR forces would go separately. Nixon did not want to  accept this offer and was angry at Brezhnev's suggestion of independent action. 
- Nixon put all the US forces, including nuclear strike groups, on alert. As an alternative, the USA suggested that a UN peacekeeping force of non-nuclear countries intervene in the conflict. Brezhnev accepted this proposal and the Yom Kippur War ended with a ceasefire on the 24 October 73. 
Nixon's visit to Moscow: Nixon, even though relations were not war, visited Moscow in july '74. After the meeting the two agreed on:
- They would continue to remove the danger of war, particularly war involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
- To limit and eventually end the arms race, especially in strategic war heads. The two leaders said their ultimate objective was complete disarmament, which would be monitored by appropriate international control. 
- They would contribute to the elimination of sources of international tension and military conflict. 
- To relax tension throughout the world.
- To develop broad, mutually beneficial co-operstion in commercial, economic, scientific, technical and cultural fields. The aim was promoting increased understanding and confidence between the people of both countries

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Section 9 - Space link-up and Helsinki

There were some encouraging consequences of the Moscow meeting. On 17 July 1975, three US astronauts and two USSR cosmonauts met up in space. Symbolic handshake in space between two sides and along with sporting and cultral allinaces, relations did deem to be on the mend.
How important were the Helsinki Agreements? After Nixon and Brezhnev's meeting in July 1974, there were continuous attempts to keep detente developing. The Helsinki Agreements of '75 were a product of this. The USA and the USSR along with 33 other nations, made declarations about three distinct international issues called baskets by signatories.
SECURITY - Recognition of Europe's frontiers. USSR accepted the existence of West Germany.  
CO-OPERATION - There was a call for closer economic, scientific and cultural links - these would lead to even closer political agreement.
HUMAN RIGHTS - Each signatory agreed to respect human rights and basic freedoms such as thought, speech, religion and freedom from unfair arrest. 


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Section 9 - Salt 2, Worsening relations, Backgroun

Salt 2: TERMS: - A limit of  2400 strategic nuclear delivery vehicles.
- 1320 limit on MIRV system for each side. 
- A ban on construction of new land-based ICBM launchers.
- Limits on deployment of new types of strategic offensive missiles. 
- SALT 2 would last until 85.  
Worsening relations: - Ratification of the treaty did not take place, the US Congress din't believe that the limits put through in SALT 2 could be verified, and there were renewed concern over the 2000 USSR troops stationed in cuba
- In late 79, NATO decided to place long-range missiles in Europe. Detente was under pressure, but its end came unexpectedly when the USSR invaded Afghanistan on 25 December '79. The US Senate refused to ratify SALT 2 and many said that a second cold war was starting.
Background to Afghanistan invasion: On 27 April '78 the People's Democratic Part of Afghanistan (PDPA - communist group) overthrew the gov of Afghanistan. Nur Muhammad Taraki, secretary of  general of the PDPA become president of the revolutionary council and prime minister of the newly established Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. During its first 18 months of rule, the PDPA imposed a communist reform programme. Decrees forming changes in marriage customs and land reform were misunderstood by virtually all Afghan. In addition, thousands of members of the traditional elite - the muslim religious establishment and intellectuals - were imprisoned, tortured or murdered, 

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Section 8 - The islamic fundamentalists and the in

The issue of islamic fundamentalism: In september '79  Havizullah Amin, the deputy prime minister, seized power from Taraki, but there were continued instability in the country because of the anti-muslim policies.Thousands of Afghan Muslims joined the mujahideen - a guerilla movement which claimed to be on a holy mission for Allah. They wanted to overthrow the Amin government. The mujahideen declared a jihad - a holy war - on the supporters of Amin. The USSR military assistance programme, which had begin in 78, was increased and Amin's regimes became dependent on USSR military equipment and advisers. However, Admin did not wish become too reliant on the USSE and wanted to improve links the USA. Unrest and chaos continued to grow in Afghanistan. - Brezhev was concerned about the growing power and spread of islamic fundamentalists and wanted to show the 30 million muslims in the USSR thesigned at there would be no changes to the way the USSR was run, USSR saw fundamentalism as a great threat to soviet system.
The invasion: Between 25 December 1979 and 1 January 1980, more than 50,000 USSR soldiers sent to Afghanistan to restore order and protect the PDPA from the mujahideen. Brezhnev said the USSR was only complying with the 1978 Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Good Neighborliness that former president Taraki had. - On 27 December 79, Amin was shot and replaced by Babrak Kamal, who had been in exile in Moscow. His position as head of the Afghan gov depended entirely on USSR military support. Many Afghan soldiers deserted to join the Mujahideen and the Kamal Gov then required 85,000 soviet soliders to keep it in power.

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Section 9 - Fall of Detente

President Carter was already under pressure in November 79 following the seizure of US embassy staff as hostages in Iran. Carter had failed to solve the problem by the end of the year, and some in the USA were accusing him of being a weak leader. He therefore began to take a firm approach when soviets invaded. This became known as the Carter doctrine:Stated that the US would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian Golf area and also promised US military aid to all of the countries bordering Afghanistan - can anyone say bribery? To carry out this policy Carter proposed the creation of a quick strike military force that could intervene anywhere in the world at short notice (Rapid Deployment Force). He also called for a draft registration of 18 - 20 year old men and for congress to allow the CIA to increase its intelligence gathering activities. - The tough line was continued when President Carter asked the Senate to delay passing SALT 2 treaty. - The USA then cancelled all shipments of grain to the USSR and US companies were forbidden to sell high technology there, such as computers and oil drilling equipment. It was also decided that assistance would be give to the mujahideen who fought against USSR. - Detente dead by the beginning of the 1980. President Cater's most controversial decision was to pressure the United States Olympic Games Committee to boycott the Moscow olympic games. Carter threatened to withold funding and remove tax benefits. USOC agreed and 61 other countries followed the US example. The sour relations which existed, at the beginning of the 1980 worsened at these Olympics. Some of these who boycotted games held an alternative event called 'the liberty bell classic' at the official games USSR one 195 medals, including 80 Gold.

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Section 9 - Reagan's attitude towards the USSR

Reagan's attitude towards the USSR: Reagan placed less emphasis on human rights and was keen to increase US defense spending. He wanted to raise the USA to the position it had held in world affairs after WW2. Moreover, he wanted to eradicate the humiliation of the loss of the Vietnam war, the hostage crisis in Iran and loss of prestige ti the USSR in Africa and Central America. Fighting communism became the major emphasis of his policy and he made it clear that he intended to confront the USSR whenever possible. Reagan was aware of the arsenal that the USSR had built-up but he was determined not to be intimidated by it.Reagan's defence policy: Reagan announced that the US defence programme between 81-87 would cost more than a trillion dollars. The defence programme included. 
- 100 MX Missiles.
- 100 B-1 long-range and supersonic bombers.
- The construction of a new Stealth bomber that would be invisible to radar.
- The strengthening of the military communications systems. 
-  The development of the neutron bomb (this weapon killed people but did little damage to property) 
As a result of the development of the Soviet SS20 missiles in the western soviet union, the USA decided to place cruise missiles (could not be detected by radar) in europe. RESULT = WORSENING REALTIONS
- View that Regan and his advisers felt they could win a limited nuclear war (Nuclear Utlilazation Target Selcetion) NUTS against the USSR. Tension began to rise because up because up until then both superpowers believed in MAD theory.  

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Section 9 - How did Reagan change US foreign polic

-Reagan was prepared to talk arm limitations but he knew he was approaching talks from position of strength because of economic difficulties in USSR.
- November 81, Reagan proposed his 'zero option' - to cancel deployment of new US intermediate range missiles in W.Europe in return for the USSR dismantling if comparable forces (600 SS20 Missiles). Brezhnev rejected the offer. Some historians believe that Reagan knew Brezhnev would refuse the offer, and would mean that the USA could then place even greater number of missiles in Europe. 
-  In a speech to the British House of Commons on the 8 June 1983, Reagan called the Soviet Union an 'evil empire'.
- Later that year the new USSR president Yuri Andropov, responded by calling the US president insane and a liar.
- After this, Andropov let loose a barrel of harsh verbal assaults on the USA reminiscent of the early years of cold war. Moscow repeatedly accused President Reagan of fanning the flames of war and compared him to Hitler.  

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Section 9 - Worsening of relations:

Despite Reagan's evil empire speech, his attitude and the arms build-up, negotiations to reduce arms continued. Reagan gave the name Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) to the meetings. The situation was further complicated by events in Poland.
     The USA decided to give secret assistance to the Polish workers' trade union movement solidarity, which was banned and saw its leaders imprisoned in 1982. The USA criticized Brezhnev and the Polish Gov for their heavy-handed approach and reacted by banning all hi-tech trade with the USSR.
    Relations grew worse when the Soviet delegation walked out of the START talks in '83 and Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) became known as star wars programme after the films. 

1. Nuclear missile is launched.
2. Satellites detects launch and feeds data to ground-based laser.

3. Laser beam is directed at mirror satellites.

4. Beam is reflected to one of many battle satellites.

5. Beam is directed at misses.
6. Missile is destroyed. 

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Section 9 - Why did Reagan develop the Star Wars p

Despite Reagan's evil empire speech, his attitude and the arms build-up, negotiations to reduce arms continued. Reagan gave the name Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) to the meetings. The situation was further complicated by events in Poland.
     The USA decided to give secret assistance to the Polish workers' trade union movement solidarity, which was banned and saw its leaders imprisoned in 1982. The USA criticized Brezhnev and the Polish Gov for their heavy-handed approach and reacted by banning all hi-tech trade with the USSR.
    Relations grew worse when the Soviet delegation walked out of the START talks in '83 and Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) became known as star wars programme after the films. 
1. Nuclear missile is launched.
2. Satellites detects launch and feeds data to ground-based laser.
3. Laser beam is directed at mirror satellites.
4. Beam is reflected to one of many battle satellites.
5. Beam is directed at misses.
6. Missile is destroyed. 

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Section 9 - SDI

23 March 1983, Reagan announced the SDI, quickly named 'star wars' by the media. SDI was a plan for a ground and space based, laser armed anti-ballistic missile system that, if developed would create a shield for US land based missiles.

- Four days after President's announcement, and in direct response to it, Andropov spoke out firmly. He accused the US of preparing a first - strike attack on the USSR and asserted that US President was 'inventing new plans on how to unleash a nuclear war in the best way, in the hope of winning.
- Andropov saw that SDI would give the US an advantage in any conflict and would then readily consider a tactical nuclear war. The US congress voted in favor of funds for the development of SDI.

- Andropov and his advisers realized that star wars meant that they would have to spend even more money of armaments in order to compete with the USA. USSR economy was already experiencing problems and renewed arms spending might destroy it completely.

- Part of Reagan's plan was that the USSR would try to compete and, in so doing, its economy would collapse. 

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Section 9 - How did relations develop from 1980-85

 Brezhnev died in 82 and the new leader, Andropov, died shortly after in February 1984. Superpower relations fluctuated during this period, and it was difficult to establish continuity.
- In 83 Reagan permitted the sale of grain to USSR in what turned out to be the biggest ever trade agreement between the 2 countries. Quite paradoxical that that Reagan had to rely on the USSR to help the US economy.
- Relations till sour and Chernenko who succeeded Andropov as general secretary announced boycott of USA olympic games, 1984. He accused the US of manipulating the games for political purposes and using propaganda against the USSR. He also claimed the security precautions for USSR athletes was inadequate.
- A spokesperson for Reagan said that the USSR needed to consider its 'barbarous' actions in Afghanistan and its treatment of dissidents. US saw the boycott as simple retaliation for Moscow games.

- The soviet decesion supported by allies in Warsaw pact (EXCEPT Romania and Yugoslavia) Afghanistan, Angola, Cuba, Ethiopia, Laos, Vietnam, North Korea and Mongolia.
- However US could still boast biggest game ever because a record 140 nations participated, including China (for fist time since '32) 

- Just as in '80 they held an alternative games called the friendship games. Showed agin that the world was divided in two, even in sport.  

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Section 9 - How did relations develop from 1980-85

- Hint that the superpowers were more willing to resume the search for detente towards the ends of 84.
- There was a great fear in Europe that the installation of Cruise and Pershing missiles had brought the possibility of a tactical nuclear war closer (NUTS) .
- There had been many anti-nuclear demonstrations in the countries where 
Cruise and Pershing missles had been stations even demonstrations in USA.
- Turning point occurred  after the death of Chernenko and the appointment of Gorbachev as the new US leader in March 1985.
- Gorbachev was much younger then his predecessors and he was prepared to adopt drastic polices to improve superpower relations.
- He had to attempt to mend the relationship, as he knew that, without change, the USSR would collapse. 

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Section 10 - What was Gorbachev's rule in ending t

- His immediate abandonment of the Brezhnev doctrine was a clear sign of radical change, he did this because the cold war was draining so much of the USSR's wealth that it could not continue to develop economically, and the failing standard of living was creating unrest in the country.
- He also wanted to reform the communist party in the USSR and modernize the Soviet-style socialism. He did not intend to abandon it. Three important strategies through which he ended the cold war:
- He initiated sweeping reforms in the USSR, soviet system and communist party - perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness)
- He ended the arms race with the USA and signed various arm reduction agreements. 
- He stooped the USSR interference in Eastern european satellite states like Poland, Czechoslovakia  and other Warsaw pact countries.
- Gorbachev wanted to maintain the USSR's role of being a superpower and he knew he had to win over the USSR people and show the world the he would not threaten world peace. He had to be all things to all people.
-  He had been in power only a month when he roamed around an industrial district of Moscow, visiting supermarkets, chatting with workers at a truck factory, discussing computer training with teachers at a school.
-  Dissidents released from jail, banned books published, and the soviet people learned of the atrocities Stalin did. However, glasnost was a two-edged sword for Gorbachev. The more freedom people gained, continued overleaf

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Section 10 - arms race ending and Geneva summit

the more they wanted and the more they began to criticize Gorbachev - making it more difficult to maintain the communist party in power.
- The economy had been damaged by the arms race, space race, war in Afghanistan and above all by a system that did not encourage incentive.  
- Perestroika (restructuring) and uskorenie (acceleration of economic development) did bring some considerable changes, and certain aspects of a free economy were introduced. Reforms in the political system, such as elections for local government, did win support for G and enabled him to be equally radical in his dealings with the USA. 
HOW DID THE ARMS RACE END? Arms limitations talks were renewed after it was clear G was keen to change relations. A summit meeting was held in Geneva over 2 days in November 1985. At this meeting Reagan would not give up commitment to SDI but at the end of discussion both Reagan and Gorbachev spoke of the world being 'a safer place'. The two broke convention and met together without advisers to discuss stuff. Though nothing concrete was decided this committed the countries to: - speed up arm talks, - Work towards the abolition of chemical weapons, - be more active on issues of human rights. Both leaders promised to meed again near in future. It was clear to many observers that the two men had been able to be friendly despite the poor relations between the two countries in the early 80's. A second meeting was in October 1986 in ICELAND. 

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Section 10 - Iceland and D.C. summit

The 1986 summit meeting in Reykjavik, Iceland: 
- Summit collapsed after the two leaders had tentatively agreed to sweeping reductions in nuclear arsenals but become deadlocked again on the crucial issue of restricting the US SDI.
- G, in a news conference, painted a bleak image of US-USSR relations leading up to the summit and said that talks had broken down over the fundamental differences between the superpowers on the SDI and the Anti Ballistic Missile treaty.
- G said Reagans insistence in SDI had 'frustrated and scuttled' the opportunity for an agreement.  
The Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty  (INF) OF 1987/ third summit:
- Washington Summit December 87, and breakthrough achieved of the INF treaty. The treaty elimanted nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistics and cruise middles with ranges of 500-5500 km.
- By the treaties deadline 1 June 1991, a total of 2692 
of such weapons had been destroys, 846 by US and 1846 by the USSR. Also under treaty, both nations were allowed to inspect each others military installations. 
-  Under the INF, there were to be stringent verification procedures to check that nuclear weapons were destroyed. Reagan described INF as the realization of an 'impossible vision' and G stated it had 'universal significance for mankind'. Both leaders stressed that INF was only the first step towards an even more radical agreement to half long-range nuclear weapons, hopefully this treaty would be signed in Moscow in 1988. 

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Section 10 - Moscow summit, May 1988

- After INF, this was final summit. West seemed to be overtaken with what became know as 'Gorbymania'. It was as if Gorby had become a pop star,
- It was evident that the wives of Reagan and Gorby had played a role in pushing the two leaders together. 
- Crowds were happy to watch then wherever they went.
The Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty:
There were more arm talks at Moscow, there were troop reductions in Europe in 1989. G promised to remove troops from Afghanistan, showed his peaceful intentions
- Summit let to the CFE treaty which was signed by NATO and the Warsaw Pact representatives in November 1990. The agreement meant reduced numbers of tanks, missiles, aircraft and other forms of non nuclear military hardware held by signatory states.The US and the USSR continued to enjoy good relations. The new US presy George Bush Senior were able to say CW over by summit at Malta in 1989.
- When Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in '90 the 2 superpowers acted closely and followed the directives of the united nations. However G did not commit any soviet troops to the coalition forces that invaded Iraq.

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Section 10 - START talks, Sinatra Doctrine, Berlin

START talks, 90-91: At the Washington summit of 31 May - 3 June bush and G discussed Strategic Arms limitations and finally signed the Treaty for the reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms on 31 July 1991. Both sides to reduce their strategic nuclear forces over seven years or so:
- 1600 strategic nuclear delivery vehicles (SNDVs) and 6000 war heads.
- A limit of 4900 on ballistic missiles
This meant reducing 25 - 35% of all their strategic warheads. Bush and G signed the treaty with pens made from scrapped missiles. 
Why did the USSR collapse so quickly? Sinatra doctrine — 'I did it my way' the USSR could no longer stand the strain of supporting forces in E. Europe and he accepted that members of the Warsaw pact could make changes to their own countries without excepting outside interference.
Changed in Eastern Europe: reforms started in Poland in 1989, a non-communist gov was elected. In that year, a range of political parties were formed in Hungary and free elections were proposed for 1990. G did not interfere and began to withdraw USSR troops from hungary.The key to the changes in e. Europe in 1989 was Hungary's decision to open its borders with Austria in May of 89. This meant whole in iron curtain. This created a way for E. Germans to move to West Germany. It brought into question whether the Berlin wall and the iron curtain could continue to exist. 

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Section 10 - E+W Germany and Collapse of USSR

Events in E and W.German - Demonstrations occurred in East Germany 89 and there were calls for change  in government. G visited therm in October 89 and informed political leaders that SSR would not become involved in international affairs. Demonstrations continued  and on 4 NOV biggest one in E.German history, with over 1 million people demanding democracy and free elections. 9 NOV evening E.German gov announced opening of w and e german border. People began to dismantle the wall. Within a few days over one million people per day had seized the chance to see relatives and experience life in WEST. West and east Germany formally reunite on 3rd october 1990. Tension in the world eased day by day. USSR seems to dwindle quickly. New Germany joined NATO and in 91 the warsaw pact dissolved.
Collapse of USSR: Events in E.E had a catastrophic impact on the USSR. The many Nationalities and ethic groups saw how the satellite states had ben able to break away from Moscow. - In 91 the baltic states Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania declared themselves independent which was accepted by Moscow in 91. This led to demands for independence within the USSR. There were fears that the country would disintegrate, and G found that he was opposed by most sectors of soviet society. 
- An attempted Coup d'etat in August  91 which was defeated by Boris 
Yeltsin (President of Russia) and though Goby restores, he had lost authority, he resigned December 91 and the USSR split into several independent states. Cold war had officially ended in 89 and now only one superpower left USA.

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Section 10 - Assessment of Gorbachev + sum up

- By 1990, Goby actions won him the Nobel Peace Price. Its doubtful this would have been awarded without consideration of his approach to satellite states in E. Europe.
- His polices had reduced the fears of the USA. Goby and Reagan had become personal friends and therefore made some significant agreements.
- These agreements meant that the US no longer regarded the soviet union as threat as now only Russia and other states.  
- The INF Treaty was especially important, although removal of USSR troops in Afghanistan, not interfering in the anti communist revolutions in Eastern Europe and Glasnost, all combined to end the war. 

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Very good work :)

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