The cold war-Edexcel

Notes on the Cold war

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  • Created on: 14-06-12 11:26
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Conflicted ideologiesThe 2 superpowers had different ideologies (USA,USSR)
America was capitalist Business and property were privately owned.Individuals
could change jobs as they wished, and make profit from their business.
America wanted Germany to recover as a trading partner
Americans believed firmly in the freedom of the individual and in government by
It was a communist state.
Russia had secret police and a oneparty state.
Russia wanted to weaken Germany and create a buffer zone of friendly states
around Russia.
The Big 3:President Roosevelt, PM Chrurchill and Stalin. Agreed that the Soviet
union could have a `sphere of influence' on Easter Europe
Stalin wished to punish and severely weaken Germany with reperations.
Churchill and Roosevelt wanted to rebuild Germany. They remembered the
mistakes of TofV.
This conference seemed more promising then Teheran as the 3 leaders agreed
on points.
They decided to split Germany into 4 zones (USSR, USA, France, Britain)
Berlin, would also be divided into those 4 zones.
Countries in Eastern Europe would hold free elections to decide how they
would be governed.
USSR joined in the war against Japan to gain back territory.
(Roosevelt had died, new president was TRUMAN)
(Churchill was replaced by ATTLEE)
These new leader did not get along with Stalin
Agreements: The Nazi party was banned, its leader considered war criminals
The OderNeisse river was the border from Poland to Germany.

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Tensions: USA+Britain denied Stalin a naval base in the Mediterranian
Stalin wanted more reperations from Germany than the USA or Britain
Stalin had set up a communist gov in Lubin (Poland). But Britain and
USA wanted a noncommunist government
The A bomb worsened relations between the USSR and the USA during the
Potsdam conference.Stalin had been told about it by Truman at the beginning of
the conference.…read more

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USA also became commited to the economic recovery of Western Europe to
stop the spread of communism.
AIMS: Stop the spread of communism
To help Europe's economy to recover
However it also caused tension:
Only 16 Europe countries accepted itall western European states
Stalin refused Marchall paln for the USSR and banned eastern Europe
countries from accepting it.…read more

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NATO 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
Defend its members. (Western Europe, USA, Canada)
When USSR developed the a bomb, NATO seemed even more important to the
defence of western Europe.
Importance of NATO
The USA was now formally commited to defend western Europe
Stalin did not see it as a defensive alliance but as a direct threat to the USSR.
The USA was able to build air bases in western Europe where planes armed with
nuclear weapons could be stationed.…read more

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Kruschev became alarmed when nagy demanded the right for removal of
the warsaw pact and follow neutral role in the Cold war.
1000 soviet tanks came and attacked Hungary to crush the uprising.
Nagy was captured and shot.
Results 250030 000 were killed
200,000 Hungarian refugees fled to Austria.
people in the West were horrified many Communists left the
Communist Party and Western leaders became more determined to contain
communism.…read more

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Western nations had won a propaganda victory since it appeared that communist
states needed to build walls to prevent their people from leaving.
However western power could not stop the building of the wall
Effects/impact of the wall
The peace was maintained but at a high cost, Many families were split. Could no
go from east to west so many people could not get to there jobs
East germans felt betrayed byt the USSR and their promise of social paradise.
Krushcev thought he had won.…read more

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It was made up of both hawks (attact minded) and Doves (Peace and love).
Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba to prevent any missiles reaching the island
26th octobre Kruschev sent an offer to remove the missiles if the blockade is
lifted and the USA promise not to invade.
Robert Kennedy who was advising the president, told him to accept this offer
(This happened in 13 days)
Reprecutuions of CMC
Khrushchev claimed that he had won the Cuban missile crisis.…read more

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The Helsinki Agreement achieved nothing it confirmed the Iron Curtain
and Russia ignored its promises about human rights.
Alexander Dubcek became Czechoslovakian leader and made some changes:
Workers were given a greater say in the running of their factories
Travel to the West was made available to all
Living standards were to be raised
free elections were to be held
opposition parties would be permitted
Dubcek was a communist but a `good' one.…read more

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Mass immigration
. Czechoslovakia returned to communist control and Russian troops
were stationed there. Half the leadership of the KSC, along with the directors
of many firms (especially publishing companies) were sacked and 47
anticommunists were arrested.
. Russia stayed in control behind the Iron Curtain. The Brezhnev
Doctrine stated that Iron Curtain countries would not be allowed to
abandon communism, "even if it meant a third world war".
Increase of the Cold War.…read more

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USA scared that Soviet has power of middle East threat to oil supply
Carter Doctorine USA would use military force to defend its national interest in
persion gulf region
Delay in SALT2 treaty, USA cancelled shipements of grain to sell high
technology to soviets
Boycotting of Moscow Olympics: sour realations between USA and USSR
Détente finished by 1980s
Ronald Reagan succeeded Carter as the president of the USA.…read more




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