Edexcel GCSE Cold War Notes

Cold War notes for Edexcel GCSE

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  • Created on: 08-06-12 23:43
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UNIT 1: DEVELOPMENT
1943 ­ TEHERAN CONFERENCE (CHURCHILL, STALIN,
ROOSEVELT)
ROOSEVELT KEEN TO IMPROVE RELATIONS BETWEEN
ALLIVES
Held in THERAN during second world war
SUCCESS for Stalin
AGREEMENTS
Second front to be opened invading France
Soviet Union to go to war against Japan AFTER Germany was
defeated
United nations to be set up
EASTERN POLAND ADDED TO SOVIET UNION
STRAINS
Stalin annoyed that Britain and France delayed second front
Churchill suspicious of Stalin thought they wanted to expand
Soviet union as they didn't want to maintain Poland's
independence
Churchill thought SU would stay in liberated countries
FEBRUARY 1945 ­ YALTA CONFERENCE (ROOSEVELT, STALIN,
CHURCHILL)
Germany not defeated yet ­ but close
ROOSEVELT AND STALIN HAVE A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP
AGREEMENTS
Germany divided into 4, US, BRITISH, FRENCH, SOVIET
BERLIN DIVIDED THE SAME
Hunt and trial of NAZI WAR CRIMINALS in international court
of justice
Join UN once war ended
Allow countries to be free from the occupation of Germans to
have free elections and choose government they wanted
STRAINS

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Amount Germany had to pay in reparations; Stalin thought
they should pay more than others
Stalin wanted Poland to have a friendly gov so that Russia had
a BUFFER ZONE to get protection from GERMANS... The
western powers thought that it would be a soviet controlled
gov.…read more

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Leader changes
SOVIET UNION EXPANSION ­ 1945 ­ 1947
POLAND (1945)
Soviet Union was dependent on a friendly polish government.
In 1945 Stalin wanted most of Poland and wanted them to be
communists.
SECURITY (1945)
Soviet Union had been invaded from the west by Germany in
1914 and in 1941. Stalin wanted control in Eastern Europe to
prevent this.…read more

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Soviets influenced disruption in government, forced Romanian king
to appoint communist government, who then abolished the
monarchy
1945 ­ YUGOSLAVIA
Leader was not intending to follow communism. Yugoslavia
expelled from communist international bureau
1947 ­ HUNGARY
Country had economic crisis.
Communist party secured a communist government. All other
parties banned.…read more

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SO...
1947 TRUMAN DOCTRINE
USA believed SU was trying to spread COMMUNISM
Containment ­ to contain communism, to stop it spreading
further, ESPECIALLY to western countries
Increase of rivalry between USA and SU. Truman had even
publically announced that the world was divided into
communism and noncommunism.
USA had atomic bombs ­ pressure on SU
EG: GREECE.…read more

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Ensures that the states in Eastern Europe
1) Followed Soviet aims in foreign policy
2) Introduced Soviet Style economic policies like STATE
CONTROL OF INDUSTRY
Way of stopping any members who disagreed with SU
COMECON ­ 1949
Communist response to MARSHALL PLAN
Founded in 1949
Was supposed to be a way in which the SU could financially
support EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
But INSTEAD was used to
1) CONTROL the economies of the satellite states
2) Give Soviet Union access to their resources
BERLIN CRISIS 1948…read more

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Allies airlifted supplies into West Germany
STALIN DID NOT SHOOT planes because he knew he was not
strong enough to have a war with the west.
During the airlift, WEST BERLINERS SUPPLIED WITH
EVERYTHING; from food to CLOTHING to OIL and BUILDING
MATERIALS, but there were still shortages but wasn't enough
to be starved out
MAY 1949, Stalin called off blockade.…read more

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BY THESE TWO ALLIANCES BEING SET UP, IT INCREASED
SEPERATION; COUNTRIES FOUND IT HARD TO BE NEUTRAL.
HAD TO PICK A SIDE TO BE ON.
WORSENING RELATIONS (1949 ­ 55)
1949 Cold war was happening to Asia. USA developed
DOMINO THEORY (once communism spreads to one country,
it spreads to many)
1950 Korean war:
(North Korea ruled by communists, supported by SU and
China
South Korea US supported government
North Korea invaded south, basically SU fighting America
(indirectly) TENSIONS.…read more

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Killed 2000 people and imprisoned 200,000 political
opponents
3) LIVING STANDARDS FALL
Living standards fell in 1952
KEY FEATURES OF HUNGARIAN UPRISING 1956
Khrushchev sent tanks into Hungary to scare Hungarians and
to drive Nazi forces away he needed to be strong enough
not to be overthrown by a small country
Nagy was appointed as NEW PRIME MINISTER he was very
popular with the people, Soviets had him under control
Nagy had gone to far ­ Nagy released political prisoners and
got people to reform…read more

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Khrushchev visited USA and it seemed successful, and
Eisenhower was READY to compromise, tensions seemed to
be relieving
BUT 9 DAYS BEFORE THEY WERE DUE TO MEET IN PARIS IN
1960 THE USSR ANNOUNCED THAT THEY HAD SHOT DOWN
A US SPY PLANE
USA refused to apologize
Khrushchev determined to solve problem of Berlin, PEOPLE
STARTED LEAVING EAST BERLIN because of bad conditions
o Organized another meeting with Kennedy
o KENNEDY WAS NOT EXPERIENCED
o REASSERTED TRUMAN DOCTRINE IN SPEECH
o He wanted to show…read more

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