History - Cold war (entire syllabus): Edexcel

This took me almost two days to make so I hope it is useful! It is a lot of writting, but it is everything you need :) I will make some notes too soon, but for now, this is it. Good luck in your exam guys!

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Preview of History - Cold war (entire syllabus): Edexcel

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History Edexcel
Cold war ­ 1943 to 1991
Unit One ­ How did the cold war develop?
Tehran Conference: 1943
The Big three attended (Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill)
Things they agreed on:
That they Soviet union could have a sphere of influence in
Eastern Europe
Things they disagreed on:
Stalin wanted revenge on Germany for attacking Russia, and so wanted reparations
Churchill and Roosevelt wanted to rebuild Germany as after WW1, they took many reparations and
Germany took revenge (treaty of Versailles).
Yalta Conference: Feb 1945
Allied leaders knew they had won the war and got on well
Things they agreed on:
Stalin would enter war on Japan when Germany was defeated
Germany would be split into 4 zones and Berlin into 4 sectors
Nazi party was banned and leaders tried as war criminals
Liberated countries would be able to hold free elections
Agreed to all join the United Nations to keep peace after the war
Eastern Europe would be seen as a Soviet Sphere of Influence
Things they disagreed on:
Stalin wanted to move the border of the USSR into Poland arguing Poland could move its border into
Germany. Churchill did not approve but couldn't do anything as the Red Army was in both these
countries. He agreed providing the USSR didn't interfere with Greece
Potsdam Conference: July 1945
Between Truman, Stalin and Attlee
Things they agreed on:
Nazi Party to be banned and leaders tried as war criminals

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A line was to be formed between Poland and Germany
Things they disagreed on:
Germany: Stalin wanted to cripple Germany to protect the USSR, Truman wanted it to recover. Stalin
was suspicious over why they wanted to protect Germany
Reparations as Stalin wanted huge compensation from
Germany but Truman didn't want to repeat the mistakes of
the first world war
Soviet policy in Eastern Europe as Stalin was setting up
communist governments in Eastern countries despite saying
he wouldn't.…read more

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The USSR would try to extend its power and influence by encouraging communists in other countries
to try to gain power. He recommended the USA try to contain the spread of Communism
The Transaction of Greece: 1947
When the Germans left Greece in 1944. There were 2 rival groups, the Monarchists and the
Communists. The Communists wanted Greece to be a Soviet republic and the Monarchists wanted
the King to return.…read more

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Europe to recover
He recommended that $17bn was made available but Congress initially refused. However in March 1947,
Czechoslovakia became communist and a pro-American minister was pushed out a window. Congress
accepted the Marshall plan immediately.…read more

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What NATO allowed:
The USA was now formally committed to the defence of Western Europe
Stalin did not see it as a defensive alliance but as a direct threat to the USSR
The USA was able to build air bases in Western Europe where planes armed with nuclear weapons
could be stationed.
The Warsaw Pact: 1955
The Soviet response to NATO, was to set up the Warsaw Pact.…read more

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He then planned to leave the Warsaw pact and become neutral in the cold war.
Khrushchev couldn't accept this as it would leave a gap in the iron curtain and the buffer zone would be
broken. Soviet troops and 1,000 tanks moved into Hungary to crush the uprising
Between 2,500 and 30,000 Hungarians, mostly civilians were killed along with 700 Soviet troops.
Over 200,000 refugees fled to Austria
The uprising highlighted the limitations of Khrushchev's policy of peaceful co-existence.…read more

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Between 1949 and 1961, 3 million East Germans had fled to the west via West Berlin from where
they could travel to West Germany.
These skilled East Germans were crucial to maintain a fair and working communist society
Why were there so many refugees?
East German government was unpopular
People in East had little freedom compared to the West.…read more

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The Western Nations had to be satisfied with a propaganda victory only as there was little western
powers could do to prevent the wall being built.
27th October 1961
Tension between the two Superpowers mounted.
Soviet tanks pulled up to Checkpoint Charlie and refused to allow any more crossings to the east.
Throughout the day US and USSR tanks faced each other.
After 18 hours they both gradually withdrew.…read more

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June 1960 Eisenhower secretly authorised the CIA to try to overthrow Castro. They provided support
and funds for Cuban exiles and investigated ways to disrupt the Cuban economy.
US companies refused to co-operate with any Cuban business allied with the USSR
American media broadcast relentless criticism of Castro
Castro assured Americans in Cuba that they were safe and let the USA keep their naval base.
Summer 1960 he allied Cuba with the USSR.…read more

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Kennedy wrote to Khrushchev asking him to withdraw missiles from Cuba, missile bases still
being built on Cuba.
26th - Kennedy receives a second letter from Khrushchev saying if the blockade was lifted they
would remove the missiles.
27th - Khrushchev sends another letter saying the USA has to remove missiles from Turkey. A U-2
plane is shot down over Cuba. The USA agreed to remove missiles from Turkey as long as it is kept
28th - Khrushchev accepted and missiles are removed.…read more


Shahnaz Uddin


it was very useful


Really good! Thanks x


Thank you so much. this is really useful, much better than the textbooks!!!! Literally a lifesaver.

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